A Kerbside Parking Management Literature Review Tourism Essay

3.1 Introduction

This chapter attempts to cover the chief literature related to the subject of research. The first subdivision gives the construct of parking direction in general and kerbside parking direction in peculiar. The latter subdivisions give an overview of kerbside parking direction schemes with respect to different parametric quantities such as geometry, pricing, timing, engineering, etc. The overall intent of this chapter is to function as basic stuff for accommodating the appropriate direction schemes for the instance survey country.

3.2 Kerbside Parking

Kerbside parking means parking infinites at the side of the road.A They are normally parallel to the kerb, but can besides be diagonal. Besides known as road-side parking, street-side parking, on-street parking, and merely curb/kerb parking. However, the term kerbside parking carries the similar significances.

3.3 Parking Management

Parking direction pertains to such policies and schemes that lead to more optimal and efficient usage of parking installations. It by and large includes a figure of schemes that vary from case-to-case sing the nature of a job. The effectual parking direction provides legion societal, physical, and environmental benefits to all categories of society. ( TDM Encyclopedia, 2008 ) . Parking direction revolves around assorted rules which are indicated in Figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Parking Management Principles

[ Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.vtpi.org/park_man.pdf accessed July 2009 ( pp.2 ) ]

Similarly, kerbside parking direction refers to such policies and plans that peculiarly address different nature of kerbside parking jobs, and helps in supplying the solution to each job.

Kerbside parking direction schemes can be loosely classified on the footing of different parametric quantities such as:






The item of each parametric quantity is described below:

3.4 Geometry

Under geometrical agreement, kerbside parking is configured physically on the land sing assorted geometrical footings such as angle, dimensions, place, etc. The item of each constellation is described below:

0 Degree Parking

30 Degrees Parking

45 Degrees Parking

60 Degrees Parking

90 Degrees Parking

3.4.1 0 grade parking constellation

0 degree kerbside parking is besides called ‘parallel parking ‘ . Your Dictionary ( 2009 ) defines parallel kerbside parking as:

“ A type of city-street parking in which a vehicle is parked near to and parallel to the kerb, typically between two other likewise parked vehicles. ”

Wikipedia Encyclopedia ( 2009 ) besides defines parallel parking as:

“ Parallel parking is a method of parking a vehicle in line with other parked autos. Cars parked in analogue are in one line, analogue to the kerb, with the front bumper of each auto confronting the back bumper of the next 1. ”

Figure 3.2: Illustration of 0 Degree Parking Configuration

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/img11.gif & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

It is the safest method of kerbside parking so far as figure of accidents is concerned since no backward motion is involved. As vehicles are parked length-wise analogue to the curb, hence, it causes less hinderance in smooth flow of traffic as compared to other geometrical parking agreements This agreement has two advantages. First, it utilizes the maximal curb length. ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) . Second, it depends upon the accomplishments of the driver. Due to this ground, most of the unskilled drivers do non experience convenience while parking their vehicles in this agreement. ( Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2009 ) . The graphical representation of parallel parking is shown in Figure 3.2.

In order to cipher the length of curb ‘L ‘ utilizing ‘N ‘ figure of vehicles, following expression is used ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) :

L = 5.9 X N

3.4.2 30 grade parking constellation

In this system of parking, vehicles are parked in such a manner that they make an angle of 30 grade with the curb as shown in figure 3.3. This constellation has three major advantages. First, it accommodates more vehicles in an available curb infinite as compared to parallel kerbside parking. Second, it creates an easiness for maneuvering of vehicles vehicles. Third, it causes minimal hold faced by traveling traffic ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) .

Figure 3.3: Illustration of 30 Degree Parking Configuration

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/img16.gif & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

In order to cipher length of curb ‘L ‘ utilizing ‘N ‘ figure of vehicles, following expression is used ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) :

L = 5 N + 0.58

3.4.3 45 grade parking constellation

An agreement of kerbside parking in which vehicles are parked in a mode that they subtend an angle of 45 grade with the curb as shown in Figure 3.4. It is normally proposed on one-way streets, roads, etc holding breadth between 38 to 40 pess. This constellation has capableness of bring forthing 60 % more parking infinites as compared to parallel parking under ideal conditions ( Department of Transportation, 2009 ) .

Figure 3.4: Illustration of 45 Degree Parking Configuration

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/img18.gif & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

In order to cipher length of curb ‘L ‘ utilizing ‘N ‘ figure of vehicles, following expression is used ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) :

L = 3.54 N + 1.77

3.4.4 60 grade parking constellation

Similar to other geometrical agreements, 60 degree kerbside parking subtends an angle of 60 degree mensurating from the length of the curb as shown in figure 3.5.

So far as parking adjustment is concerned, this constellation can increases the figure of parking infinites two times as that of parallel parking under ideal conditions ( Department of Transportation, 2009 ) .

Figure 3.5: Illustration of 60 Degree Parking Configuration

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/img19.gif & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

In order to cipher length of curb ‘L ‘ utilizing ‘N ‘ figure of vehicles, following expression is used ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) :

L = 2.89 N + 2.16

3.4.5 90 grade parking constellation

Besides known as right-angle or perpendicular parking. As the name suggests, it is an agreement in which vehicles are parked in such a manner that they make an angle of 90 grade with the curb or are parked perpendicular to the way of flow of traffic as shown in Figure 3.6. This agreement may consequences in traffic accidents since vehicles experience complex maneuvering at the clip of reaching and going from a parking infinite. It is note-worthy to advert that sheer parked vehicles normally cause maximal perturbation in the smooth flow of traffic on history of cut downing the transporting capacity of roads. Such hinderance may worsen farther if the route breadth is really less. However, this agreement is considered to hold the capableness of suiting maximal vehicles ( Department of Transportation, 2009 ) .

Figure 3.6: Illustration of 90 Degree Parking Configuration

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/img20.gif & gt ; accessed 01 July 2009 ]

In order to cipher length of curb ‘L ‘ utilizing ‘N ‘ figure of vehicles, following expression is used ( Indian Institute of Technology, 2007 ) :

L = 2.5 N

Table 3.1: Comparison of Parking Angles with Accommodation and Traffic Flow

Parking Angle ( grade ( s ) )

Parking Adjustment

( No of vehicles parked )

Degree of Traffic Hindrance



Very Less


1.2 Timess ‘X ‘



1.6 Timess ‘X ‘



2.0 Timess ‘X ‘



2.4 Timess ‘X ‘

Very High

Footnote: ‘x ‘ refers to figure of vehicles parked at a fixed curb infinite against 0 grade

Beginning Notes: adapted from:

1. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~vmtom/1106_ce740/112-ce740/plain/plain.html

2. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hampdenhappenings.org/HCC_WEB/Zoning_Pdf/RAP/AngleParking.pdf

3.5 Timing

It merely refers to the sum of clip one remains parked at an available curb infinite. There is no difficult and fast regulation to pull off parking timings. However, the parking timing scheme can be understood by mentioning a really utile illustration. Suppose, a downtown country of a metropolis has a java store, a sandwich store and a twenty-four hours watering place as illustrated in figure 3.7. The timings of remaining at assorted utilizations vary from usage to utilize. For case, in instance of java store, a client will remain for approximately 15 proceedingss while the sandwich stores ‘ client will remain for upper limit of an hr and, and twenty-four hours spa client would remain for a upper limit of two hours ( Dan, 2005 ) .

Figure 3.7: Conjectural Situation – Coffee Shop, Sandwich Shop and Day Spa

[ Source: & lt ; shoup.bol.ucla.edu/Downtown % 20Redwood % 20City % 20Parking % 20Plan.pdf & gt ; ( pp.20 ) ]

Now a inquiry may be raised, what should be the clip bound for this theoretical block? Before supplying reply, it is necessary to hold a deep expression into the state of affairs under treatment. There might be different attacks. Suppose maximal clip bound ( state 2 hours ) is imposed which can aim every client for kerbside parking. But on the other manus, if shorter clip bound ( say 1 hr ) is enforced, it may extinguish some clients of twenty-four hours watering places and they will be forced to purchase ticket once more and once more upto the clip bound they wish to stay parked ( Dan, 2005 ) .

Before repairing the clip limits peculiarly in downtown countries, two things must be kept in head. First, the downtown countries ever have a broad scope of concern activities with irregular alterations. Second, every Parker want to park in kerbside parking infinites as these are extremely desirable and fixed in figure. These two points lead to the fact that a parking infinite is suppose to provide to all the demands of the utilizations. For better apprehension, the state of affairs may be split with respect to assorted peak hours. For case, in the early forenoon, java store will be busying all the parking infinites of the block but will go laid-back during afternoon ( lunch clip ) . Likewise, sandwich store will be busying every infinite of block in the afternoon ( lunch clip ) . The twenty-four hours spa will be busying the infinites when both java and sandwich stores will non active ( i.e. in the eventide & A ; dark times ) . Because of shorter clip bound, the empty infinites can non be used by their clients ( Dan, 2005 ) .

It is really of import to advert here that the baronial clip bounds entirely can non work without proper labour intensive enforcement. The concerned enforcement officer will hold to tag each tyre with a chalk. He will hold to see the block once more and once more for effectual monitoring to look into the clip bound of each infinite ( whether 15 proceedingss, 1 hr or 2 hours ) . The frequence of supervising depends upon the clip bounds. If the clip bounds are really short, concerned enforcement officer will hold to look into the infinite often and frailty versa. He may get down supervising the infinites if variable clip bounds are involved ( Dan, 2005 ) .

The employees may work out something to avoid the ticket by wipe outing the chalk in the absence of enforcement officer or employees may delegate their colleagues for this undertaking. To forestall this behaviour, some metropoliss have divided the business district into sub-zones with rigorous limitations that one must go forth the zone before the termination of the clip bound or purchase ticket ( Dan, 2005 ) .

In such business district where appropriate market monetary values are non instituted, effectual aggressive enforcement is the lone manner that can bring forth some positive consequences. If enforcement is uneffective, people may easy work out some agencies to go against the clip bounds. Such misdemeanors are normally figured out by the employees who have the benefit of being in business district all the twenty-four hours. Aggressive enforcement means that “ tickets are issued instantly upon the termination of clip bound with no grace period, and adequate officers are on responsibility to guarantee that misdemeanors are cited at all times. But effectual enforcement leads to clients acquiring tickets excessively. ” ( Dan, 2005 ) .

The parking turnover can merely be increased by establishing market-rate pricing. Such monetary values can make available infinites. Suppose, market rate monetary values are instituted and equal infinites are available, so why clip bounds be imposed? ( Dan, 2005 ) .

3.6 Pricing

Shoup ( 2009 ) suggests that there are two policies through which kerb parking can be managed in footings of pricing which include:

Charging public presentation based pricing ; and

Local Revenue Returns.

3.6.1 Performance parking pricing

Shoup ( 2009 ) defines public presentation based parking pricing as the pricing whereby balance can be achieved with a fixed supply of curbside parking infinites. This is besides known as “ Goldilocks Principle ” – monetary value is excessively high if so many infinites are lying vacant, and monetary value is excessively low if no infinite is available.

The performance-based pricing refers to such pricing through which an tenancy rate of 85 % can be achieved. It has three major benefits. First, curbside parking can be utilized in an efficient manner since the infinites will be easy available for people to park their autos. Second, the transit system can run easy. Furthermore, cruising for parking infinite will non take long clip which finally consequences in less emanation and wastage of fuel. Third, the economic system can work more expeditiously. The monetary value of parking should be kept higher where the demand is high and on the other manus, the monetary value of parking should be kept low where the demand is low. The demand based high parking monetary value will bring forth more gross. ( Shoup, 2009 ) .

By 85 % tenancy rate, it is meant that 1 out of every 8 parking infinites is vacant regardless of extremum and off-peak hours. Adopting it as a direction scheme, people feel convenience whenever they wish to park their vehicles. Such public presentation based parking is non possible through baronial clip bounds but merely through the usage of appropriate pricing scheme. To province it otherwise, it can be said that rates of kerbside parking, being the most desirable infinites, rates are unbroken high particularly along really busy roads, somewhat less in side streets/roads whereas, and are kept low in instance of off-street parking. In instance, parking tenancy of some country is more than 85 % significance that country is congested and monetary value must be increased. Likewise, if the same block has tenancy less than the norm ( i.e. 85 % ) significance that country in underutilized and the monetary value must be decreased ( Zack, 2005 ) .

Figure 3.8: Geographic Comparison of Right Price and Underpriced Kerbside Parking

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //shoup.bol.ucla.edu/crusing.pdf & gt ; accessed July 2009 ] ( pp.484 )

3.6.2 Local gross returns

The public presentation based parking pricing can bring forth ample public gross. If gross is utilised as added public disbursement on the street, citizens will non experience any vacillation in disbursement it. The aggregative gross should be used in cleansing and maintaining of pavements, landscape gardening, illuming betterments, remotion of composing on walls, and proviso of other public demands. ( Shoup, 2009 ) . A major per centum of gross collected from kerbside parking must be utilized on the same country from where it is collected ( Shoup, 2008 ) . If such proposal is implemented and gross comes back in the same geographic location, no 1 will state “ no ” while paying the sum of kerbside parking.

3.6.3 Parking increase finance

Parking increase finance is similar to revenue enhancement increase finance. Such type of increase finance causes addition in values of the belongingss in the redevelopment territories. Likewise, the commercial countries can have the increase in the gross collected from parking metre as a consequence of public presentation parking pricing ( Shoup, 2009 ) .

3.6.4 Explanation

Yoshi ( 2009 ) has developed a really utile synergistic web site to show the importance of puting the monetary value of kerbside parking and its relationship with assorted variables such as parking tenancy rate, cruising clip, parking continuance, turnover rate, carbon-dioxide emanation, etc. In order to understand it better, the overall state of affairs can be divided into three ( 3 ) specific instances on the footing of two extremes i.e. lower limit and maximal monetary value of kerbside parking:

Case-1: Normal-price state of affairs ;

Case-2: High-price state of affairs ; and

Case-3: Low-price state of affairs.

Case-1: Normal-price state of affairs

Figure 3.9 is picturing that upon puting the monetary value of kerbside parking as $ 1.00 / hr ( which seems low-cost ) , all Parkers have occupied the kerbside parking infinites. Because of this tenancy, every Parker wishes to park for a normal parking continuance of 60 proceedingss. Further, the said monetary value does non act upon cruising clip ( clip required to make at a vacant curb infinite ) , emanation degrees, vehicle stat mis travelled, and fuel wastage.

Figure 3.9: Normal-Price Situation

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //yoshi.cs.ucla.edu/temp/Cruising.html & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

Case-2: High-price state of affairs

This state of affairs may be called as Donald Shoup ‘s Right Price Situation. By utilizing the skidder, the monetary value of parking is kept at a upper limit of $ 1.50 / hr. The overall information is presented through figure 3.10.

Figure 3.10: High-price Situation

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //yoshi.cs.ucla.edu/temp/Cruising.html & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

It can be observed that increasing the monetary value of kerbside parking has changed the state of affairs drastically as:

Parking Occupancy has decreased ( which is close to calculate 85 % )

Duration is reduced to 53 min ( from 60 min )

Parking turnover is increased as 1.13 autos ( from 1 car/hour )

Gross has increased up to 34 %

Case-3: Low-price Situation

As indicated in figure 3.11, the monetary value of kerbside parking is kept every bit low as $ 0.50/hr by utilizing the skidder. It is apparent that decrease in monetary value has caused some serious jobs in the form of increased cruising clip, emanation rate, parking continuance and wastage of fuel. However, there is zero fluctuation in parking tenancy rate. In comparing with case-2, the entire addition from kerbside parking has besides decreased significantly ( merely $ 50/hr ) .

Figure 3.11: Low-price Situation

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //yoshi.cs.ucla.edu/temp/Cruising.html & gt ; accessed 05 July 2009 ]

3.7 Technology

Wikipedia encyclopaedia ( 2009b ) defines:

“ Material objects of usage to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can besides embrace broader subjects, including systems, methods of organisation, and techniques ”

In the context of kerbside parking, it refers to machinery or human existences used for the effectual direction and enforcement of related policy ( if developed ) . Assorted engineerings are being utilized around the universe for this purpose including parking metre, pay-and-display metre, pay-by-space, pay-by-cell phone, pay-by-satellite, tenancy detectors, etc. The item of each is given as follows:

3.7.1 Parking metre

Parking metre can be defined by Wikipedia encyclopedia ( 2009c ) as:

“ A device used to roll up money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a peculiar topographic point for a limited sum of clip. Parking metres can be used by municipalities as a tool for implementing their incorporate on-street parking policy, normally related to their traffic and mobility direction policies ”

Flaherty ( 1997 ) discusses that parking metres do get down working instantly after the interpolation of a coin. He farther adds that chief intent of the parking metre is to let kerbside parking either for fixed or changing continuance of clip up to a maximal prescribed clip bound. If a vehicle uses the parking infinite up to the set clip period, no misdemeanor signal will be displayed. However, on the other manus, if a vehicle remains occupied for more than the fit clip period, a misdemeanor signal will look on the metre automatically.

3.7.2 In-vehicle metre

Roth ( 2004 ) defines in-vehicle metre as a little computing machine incorporating a digital clock, a slot for pre-paid parking cards and buttons to come in the proper codification.

Figure 3.12: Example of In-Vehicle Meter

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //anti-bob.com/parking/Rational_Pricing_for_Curbside_Parking-GRoth.pdf. & gt ; accessed July 2009 ] ( pp.57 )

These metres can non be used without a smart card. Similar to mobile phone or cell phone parking, different Numberss are allocated to different parking zones. Once a auto enters upon a priced curb infinite, the driver has to plug in all the codifications assigned to different parking zones to be followed by the interpolation of smart card to trip the metre. So, instantly after the activation, he/she places the metre inside the windscreen to show the parking position. The charges for the clip period he remains parked at a curb infinite are normally deducted from the pre-paid history of the driver until he/she turns off the metre. This engineering is being used in Europe and America ( Shoup, Buying Time at the Curb ) .

In-vehicle metre has figure of advantages:

street furniture is non required to be provided since it is installed inside the vehicle ( Roth, 2004 )

It farther contributes to bettering beautification of the country ( Roth, 2004 )

it is flexible option as rates can be changed and varied consequently ( Roth, 2004 )

It is cheap as compared to a metre ( Shoup, Buying Time at the Curb ) .

3.7.3 Pay-and-display metre

Pay-and-Display Parking metre can be defined by Wikipedia Encyclopedia ( 2009d ) as:

“ Wage and show machines are a subset of ticket machines used for modulating parking in urban countries or in auto Parkss. It relies on a client buying a ticket from a machine and exposing the ticket on the splashboard, or windshield or rider window of the vehicle. Details included on a printed ticket are by and large the location and operator of the machine, expiry clip, fee paid and clip entered. ”

This metre works otherwise in comparing with pay-by-space metre. In pay-and-display metre, after parking, the Parkers pays for the coveted length of clip during which he remained his vehicle parked in a curb infinite ( Zack, 2005 ) .

Figure 3.13: Example of Pay-and-Display Meter

[ Source: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Pay_and_display_ticket_machine.jpg. & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

The pay-and-display machines can be operated with coins and recognition cards so that drivers are non bound to maintain big sum in their pockets all the clip. Since recognition cards are used for payment, such machines besides cut down the cost of individuals who empty the machines. The wage and show system is being used peculiarly for kerbside parking in UK where entree barriers are non installed. ( Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2009d ) .

The system has some restriction every bit good. First, it forces people to walk short distance. Second, monitoring is most hard. Third, more parking signage is required as compared to other systems ( Flaherty, 1997 ) .

3.7.4 Pay-by-space metre

Pay-by-space metre is another type of multi-space metre. In wage by infinite metre ( which normally work otherwise every bit compared to pay and expose metre ) , each parking infinite is assigned a alone figure which is marked on the curb. Upon reaching, Parker enters the corresponding figure of his coveted parking infinite, sedimentation payment for the time-period during he will stay parked at curb, and parks his vehicle ( Zack, 2005 ) .

3.7.5 Pay-by-phone

As the name suggests, this engineering allows Parker to lodge parking payments for the length of clip they wish to stay parked at a curb infinite by utilizing the recognition of their nomadic phones. The system works in such a manner that the user calls a toll-free figure when he is likely to park the vehicle, and makes a phone call once more when he is traveling to go forth. This engineering is already being used in several European Cities of the universe. ( Cerreno, 2002 ) .

Pay-by-phone engineering has many advantages. First, it is a simple and fast parking system as about even anyone can run a cell phone easy. Second, it allows Parker for distant parking payment. Third, in instance of termination of parking clip, the information is communicated to the Parker by directing a message ( either voice mail or text ) . Fourth, it is cheap solution to kerbside parking job ( Carreno, 2008 ) .

3.7.6 Coupon parking

Coupon parking can be defined by Wikipedia encyclopedia ( 2009e ) as:

“ Coupon parking is a fluctuation of parking payment. It is similar to the wage and show mechanism without the usage of machines ; the automobilist is to buy a brochure of vouchers in progress from the governments alternatively ” .

Figure 3.14: Example of Coupon Parking

[ Beginning:

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Pay_and_display_ticket_machine.jpg. & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

When a automobilist parks his vehicle at a parking infinite, he normally purchases a voucher from parking attendant nowadays at site. He may besides buy it from the concerned authorization responsible for kerbside parking after paying the prescribed fee ( Tan and Yeoh, 2008 ) . Motorist first scratches the panel maintaining in position the day of the month and clip. He so displays it at the splashboard. If the parking clip expires, he can buy or utilize another voucher for his convenience. In comparing with parking metre which is so expensive tool to put in and keep, the set up cost of voucher parking is significantly low. However, voucher parking system requires sufficient work force for its effectual enforcement. Coupon parking is being used in Singapore, Brazil, New Zealand, Australia, and Israel. ( Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2009e ) .

3.7.7 Parking phonograph record

It is a round phonograph record holding clip marked on it within a pocket. Before parking, the automobilist set the parking phonograph record harmonizing to the clip of arrival plus the clip of going. For case, if he arrives at 10:00 am, he sets the disc for 10:30 ( 30 min ) with regard to the clip bound allowed in a parking zone. Then, the set disc is displayed inside the windshield. The policing traffic warden normally monitors the sum of clip a vehicle is allowed for parking by utilizing a ticker. There are assorted negative points of phonograph record parking. First, the system is complicated. Second, it requires more careful supervising since greater hazard of cheating is involved. ( Flaherty, 1997 ) . This engineering is being practiced in most of European states. ( Wikipedia, 2009f ) .

Figure 3.15: Example of Parking Disc

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accessed July 2009 ]

3.7.8 Satellite parking

Satellite Parking refers to a system of pull offing kerbside parking infinite through the usage of pilotage orbiter. The system comprises of three interconnected constituents: ( 1 ) monitoring unit ; ( 2 ) look intoing unit ; and ( 3 ) location information computing machine unit. The monitoring unit normally do get down operation by taking the exposure of a parking infinite, transmits the image to a parking infinite look intoing unit which further transmits the image to the location information computing machine unit so as to convey position-based information to the pilotage orbiter ( Kim JH et Al, 2008 ) .

3.7.9 Parking tenancy detectors

Parking tenancy detectors are another advanced attack to increase the ability to pull off and mensurate the kerbside parking in an efficient mode. These detectors are normally fixed in the paving ( as shown in the figure 3.16 ) and observe the presence of vehicle utilizing electromagnetic alterations ( Shoup, 2008 ) .

Figure 3.16: A Typical Remote Sensor

[ Beginning:

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ci.glendale.ca.us/planning/pdf_files/MobilityPlan/Final % 20Document/GLENDALEDowntownMobilityStudy % 20Ch5 % 20Parking.pdf & gt ; accessed July 2009 ] ( pp. 5-29 )

These can be categorized as cringle detector and remote detector. Loop detectors are embedded under the paving of the route that can feel the presence of the vehicle electromagnetically but transmit the information through a wired connexion. While, the distant detectors work similar to loop detector with a little difference of conveying the signal wirelessly. Among these two options, remote detector is considered to be the best option as it adheres to the paving therefore, reduces the execution and care cost ( Weaver et al, 2009 ) .

3.8 Assorted

Besides those schemes that have already been described, there are some other schemes which can non be farther classified and therefore are placed under this caput. These include:

Shared Parking

User Information and Way-Finding

Parking Security and Lighting

Development of Overflow Parking Plan

3.8.1 Shared parking

Shared parking refers to a parking direction scheme ( either on-street or off-street ) whereby parking infinites of assorted land usage types can be shared maintaining in position the peak clip of different land utilizations located in close propinquity. For case, office may portion its parking infinite with the eating house ( capable to the status that eating house must be located in close propinquity ) since the peak clip of both of the land uses is different ( See Table 3.2 ) .

Share parking can be categorized as on-street ( kerb ) shared parking or off-street shared parking. On-street/curb parking is besides called public parking while off-street parking is besides known as private parking ( TDM Encyclopedia, 2008 )

Table 3.2: Extremum Parking Demand of Various Landuses

Weekday Peaks

Flushing Extremums

Weekend Peaks



Religious Institutes


Parallel barss and Dance Halls


Distribution Facilities

Meeting Hallwaies

Shops and Promenades



Medical Clinics



Professional Servicess

Beginning Notes: Available from:

1. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm89.htm [ Accessed July 2009 ]

In instance of on-street shared parking, parking infinites between two sites are shared as illustrated in the above illustration. Smith ( 1983 ) experimented shared parking and observed that entire sum of parking could be reduced to 40-60 % .

Public Parking is considered to be the most efficient type of shared parking because of the ground that each infinite marks at many Parkers and different finishs. Resultantly, a sum of 100 public parking infinites correspond to 150 private parking infinites. So, developers may be asked to pay the in-lieu fee and so, the earned gross from the developers can be utilized in bettering the public on-street parking installations as a replacement to the lower limit demands for private off-street parking. ( Shoup, 1999 ) .

TDM encyclopaedia ( 2008 ) highlights the advantages of shared parking as it is speedy, flexible, and cheap method through which parking installations can be utilized more expeditiously. However, shared parking has besides some disadvantages since it requires extra disposal and enforcement activities. Some other immoralities of shared parking may be visualized after its execution. e.g. It does non work in instance of unusual extremum periods.

3.8.2 Parking information and way-finding

Parking information system refers to assorted maps, marks, booklets, and assorted types of electronic communicating systems so as to steer the users about different options of parking e.g. location, monetary value, and handiness ( FHWA, 2007 ) . For distributing information to the general pubic, a web-based tool integrating maps, marks, booklets, rates, and related information can be developed ( which may be updated from clip to clip ) ( TMA, 2006 ) .

Figure 3.17: Example of Parking Information

[ Beginning:

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //motortorque.askaprice.com/images/features/428-288/Guide-to-parking-signs-and-rules-20172.jpg & gt ; accessed July 2009 ]

Parking way-finding is a proficient term which refers to a scheme to direct drivers in turn uping the appropriate parking topographic point as per their demands. Way-finding is by and large a portion of the whole system of parking information.

Figure 3.18: Example of Parking Way-finding

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accessed July 2009 ]

3.8.3 Parking security and lighting

Since kerbside parking is a signifier of public parking, it must integrate the principal of Crime Prevention system through Environmental Design ( CPTED ) . The chief provinces that the lines of sights should be clear, the concealment topographic points be eliminated together with the proviso of equal street illuming installations such as Na lamp, lamp station, suspended visible radiations, etc. ( Walker et al, 2007 ) .

3.8.4 Development of overflow parking program

Overflow parking program refers to a combination of different parking schemes for the direction of kerbside parking during particular events or unusual extremum periods. Generally these include, shared parking, publicity of public conveyance installations, enforcement of parking ordinance to prefer precedence users ( handicapped, HOV, etc ) , and walk-ability betterment ( TDM Encyclopedia, 2008 ) .