American industrial city Essay

1. Describe the rise of the American industrial metropolis. and topographic point it in the context of world-wide tendencies of urbanisation and mass migration ( the European diaspora ) Cities grew up and out. with such celebrated designers as Louis Sullivan working on and honing skyscrapers ( first looking in Chicago in 1885 ) . The metropolis grew from a little compact one that people could walk through to acquire around to a immense city that required commutation by electric streetcars. Electricity. indoor plumbing. and telephones made metropolis life more beguiling. Department shops like Macy’s ( in New York ) and Marshall Field’s ( in Chicago ) provided urban working-class occupations and besides attracted urban middle-class shoppers. Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie told of a woman’s escapades in the large metropolis and made metropoliss dazing and attractive. However. the move to metropolis produced tonss of rubbish. because while husbandmans ever reused everything or fed “trash” to animate beings. metropolis inhabitants. with their mail-order shops like Sears and Montgomery Ward. which made things inexpensive and easy to purchase. could merely throw away the things that they didn’t like any longer.

2. Describe the New Immigration. and explicate how it differed from the Old Immigration and why it aroused resistance from many native-born Americans

Until the 1880s. most of the immigrants had come from the British Isles and Western Europe ( Germany and Scandinavia ) and were rather literate and accustomed to some type of representative authorities. This was called the “Old Immigration. ” But by the 1880s and 1890s. this shifted to the Baltic and Slavic people of southeasterly Europe. who were fundamentally the antonym. “New Immigration. ” Many Europeans came to America because there was no room in Europe. nor was at that place much employment. since industrialisation had eliminated many occupations. The “nativism” and anti-foreignism of the 1840s and 1850s came back in the eightiess. as the Germans and western Europeans looked down upon the new Slavs and Baltics. fearing that a commixture of blood would destroy the fairer Anglo-Saxon races and make inferior progeny.

The “native” Americans blamed immigrants for the debasement of the urban authorities. These new bigots had forgotten how they had been scorned when they had arrived in America a few decennaries before. Trade union members hated them for their willingness to work for super-low rewards and for conveying in unsafe philosophies like socialism and communism into the U. S. Anti-foreign organisations like the American Protective Association ( APA ) arose to travel against new immigrants. and labour leaders were speedy to seek to halt new in-migration. since immigrants were often used as scabs.

3. Discourse the attempts of societal reformists and churches to help the New Immigrants and alleviate urban jobs. and the immigrants’ ain attempts to prolong their traditions while absorbing to mainstream America

Since churches had largely failed to take any bases and mass meeting against the urban poorness. predicament. and enduring. many people began to oppugn the aspiration of the churches. and began to worry that Satan was winning the conflict of good and evil. The accent on stuff additions worried many. A new coevals of urban evangelists stepped in. including people like Dwight Lyman Moody. a adult male who proclaimed the Gospel of kindness and forgiveness and adapted the quaint faith to the facts of metropolis life.

The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in 1889 and continued working good after his 1899 decease. Roman Catholic and Judaic religions were besides deriving many followings with the new in-migration. Cardinal Gibbons was popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants. as he preached American integrity. By 1890. Americans could take from 150 faiths. including the new Salvation Army. which tried to assist the hapless and unfortunate. The Church of Christ. Scientist ( Christian Science ) . founded by Mary Baker Eddy. preached a perversion of Christianity that she claimed cured illness. YMCA’s and YWCAs ( Young Men’s/Women’s Christian Association ) besides sprouted.

4. Analyze the alterations in American spiritual life in the late 19th century. including the enlargement of Catholicism. Orthodoxy. and Judaism. and the turning Protestant division between progressives and fundamentalists over Darwinism and scriptural unfavorable judgment

In 1859. Charles Darwin published his On the Origin of Species. which set forth the new philosophy of development and attracted the anger and rage of fundamentalists. “Modernists” took a measure from the fundamentalists and refused to believe that the Bible was wholly accurate and factual. They contended that the Bible was simply a aggregation of moral narratives or guidelines. but non sacred Bible inspired by God. Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll was one who denounced creationism. as he had been widely persuaded by the theory of development. Others blended creationism and development to contrive their ain readings.

5. Explain the alterations in American instruction and rational life. including the argument between DuBois and Washington over the ends of African American instruction

During this clip period. public instruction and the thought of tax-supported simple schools and high schools were garnering strength. Teacher-training schools. called “normal schools” . experient great enlargement after the Civil War. The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the private Catholic parochial schools. which were fast going a major portion of the nation’s educational construction. Public schools excluded 1000000s of grownups. Crowded metropoliss by and large provided better educational installations than the old one-room rural schoolhouses. The South lagged far behind other parts in public instruction. and African-Americans suffered the most.

The taking title-holder of black instruction was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee. Alabama. His self-help attack to work outing the nation’s racial jobs was labeled “accommodationist” because it stopped short of straight disputing white domination. Washington avoided the issue of societal equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He became an internationally celebrated agricultural chemist. Black leaders. including Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois. attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labour and ageless lower status. Du Bois helped to organize the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) in 1910.

6. Describe the literary and cultural life of the period. including the widespread tendency towards pragmatism in art and literature. and the metropolis beautiful motion led by urban contrivers

Libraries such as the Library of Congress besides opened across America. conveying literature into people’s places. With the innovation of the Linotype in 1885. the imperativeness more than kept gait with demand. but competition sparked a new trade name of news media called “yellow news media. ” in which newspapers reported on wild and antic narratives that frequently were false or rather overdone: sex. dirt. and other human-interest narratives. Two new journalistic barons emerged: Joseph Pulitzer ( New York World ) and William Randolph Hearst ( San Francisco Examiner. et al. ) Fortunately. the strengthening of the Associated Press. which had been established in the 1840s. helped to countervail some of the questionable news media.

7. Explain the turning national arguments about morality in the late 19th century. peculiarly in relation to the altering functions of adult females and the household. Victoria Woodhull proclaimed free love. and together with her sister. Tennessee Claflin. wrote Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly. which shocked readers with exposes of personal businesss. etc. Anthony Comstock waged a womb-to-tomb war on the “immoral. ” The “new morality” reflected sexual freedom in the addition of birth control. divorces. and blunt treatment of sexual subjects. Urban life was nerve-racking on households. who were frequently separated. and everyone had to work—even kids every bit immature as 10 old ages old. While on farms. more kids meant more people to reap and assist. in the metropoliss. more kids meant more oral cavities to feed and a greater opportunity of poorness.