An Entire Global Industry Of Festivals And Event Tourism Essay


An full planetary industry of festivals and events has evolved and developed since the early 1990s. On a planetary footing there is unprecedented involvement in festivals and events – at an international and national degree, in metropoliss and towns, small towns and crossroadss, and in rural and coastal countries. Everyone wants to observe their peculiar signifier of civilization, tradition, difference or similarity with others. Festivals and events can assist advance their finish and attract tourers – they can be viewed as a new signifier of touristry in which to ground economic prosperity and development. A new industry has grown up around this emerging sector, and politicians and enterprisers have besides grasped the value of this world-wide involvement. The image of a finish, merchandise or service can be enhanced or damaged by the success or failure of a festival or event. ( Robertson, 2004 ) . Festivals and events have different degrees of operating costs and they fall into both the not-for-profit and profit-making classs. Their purpose varies – some have an amusement and educational remit and can be used to convey different communities together, others can be used for concern publicity. The leisure industry is one of the largest in the UK, worth more than ?1.7 billion a hebdomad ( Family Expenditure Survey 2000-2001 ) and responsible for 25-38 % of consumer disbursement.

Widening the definition to include cultural festivals and events it can be seen that cultural events have benefits to both the humanistic disciplines universe and the touristry finish. Many cultural events are now even viing with major events in footings of economic and socio – cultural impacts. Paul Gudgin, Director of the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, cites how the 2002 Fringe Festival sold more tickets and brought in more gross than the 2002 Commonwealth Games held in Manchester. Cultural events are turning internationally and are important economic and cultural drivers for communities and host finishs.

The Isle of Wight Festival is a music festival which takes topographic point yearly around June on the Isle of Wight. It was originally held from 1968 to 1970.The 1970 event was by far the largest and most celebrated of these early festivals ; it was said at the clip to be one of the largest human assemblages in the universe ( attending has been estimated at approximately 600,000 ) . Included in the line-up of over 50 performing artists were The Who, Jimi Hendrix, Miles Davis, The Doors, Joni Mitchell, and Jethro Tull.

Concerns over public safety and equal comfortss led to Parliament go throughing the “ Isle of Wight Act ( 1971 ) ” forestalling assemblages of more than 5,000 people on the island without a particular license.

The event was revived in 2002 at Seaclose Park, a diversion land on the outskirts of Newport. Many noteworthy creative persons have performed since its resurgence including The Rolling Stones, Muse, Stereophonics, Ray Davies, David Bowie, The Foo Fighters, The Who, R.E.M. , Coldplay, Bryan Adams and The Police. It was sponsored by Nokia from 2004 to 2006. The boosters of the event now are Solo Music Agency and publicities. “ In merely eight old ages the event has changed how people see the island and the feeling of the topographic point. ” ( John Metcalfe: 15/06/2009 ) .

Purposes And Aims.

1.3 Literature Review.

Paragraph on what it is! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

1.4 Definitions of Festivals.

The word ‘Festival ‘ has been used to depict a big figure and assortment of events for 100s of old ages ( Bolwdin, Allen, O ‘ Toole, McDonnell and Harris, 2006 ) . Getz ( 2005 ) definition of a festival is ‘A public, themed jubilation ‘ . Smith ( 1990 ) elaborates on this by categorizing festivals as ‘A jubilation of a subject or particular event for a limited period of clip, held yearly or less often to which the populace is invited. ‘ Gilbert and Lizotte ( 1998: 73 ) suggest that the cardinal specifying feature of a festival is its transiency by being normally infrequent a festival can make great degrees of exhilaration. This suggests that it would be hard to bring on and prolong the same sense of juncture and exhilaration if such an event was to be held more often. Brown ‘s ( 1993 ) dictionary definition of a festival is a ‘Joyful or honorific event. ‘

1.5 Differences between commercial music festivals and Humanistic disciplines festivals.

Allen and Shaw ( 2001 ) propose that festivals can be split into seven specific classs, High profile general jubilations of the humanistic disciplines ( e.g BBC Proms ) , Festivals that celebrate a specific location ( e.g La Giostra del Saracino, Italy ) , Art signifier Festivals ( e.g Cheltenham Jazz Festival ) , Celebration of work by a community of involvement ( e.g London Festival of Bulgarian Culture ) , Calendar festivals including spiritual and community ( e.g Easter ) , recreational festival ( e.g Scottish Amateur Film Festival ) and in conclusion commercial music festivals ( e.g Isle Of Wight Festival ) . Allen and Shaw ( 2001 ) estimation that there are about 550 different one-year festivals in Britain entirely, plus many other smaller local community festivals.

A Shuker ( 2005:104 ) explains a music festival is a big graduated table concert that normally takes topographic point outside, frequently running over several yearss, and that they are an constituted historical tradition in the UK. Shuker ( 2005:105 ) and Hutmyk ( 1997:108 ) believe that music festivals can, Expand audiences, maintain musicals traditions alive, and give the performing artists and audience a shared communal individuality.

1.6 Features of Tourism

Festivals are identified as one of the fastest turning signifiers of leisure- and tourism-related phenomena ( Dimmock and Tiyce, 2001 ; Gunn, 1994 ) .

Tourism is a many-sided and multidimensional activity that can touch and impact a complex map of other economic and societal factors. ( grounds! ! ) The United Nations classified three signifiers of touristry in 1994, in its ‘Recommendations on Tourism Statistics ‘ . The three types were: Domestic touristry, which involves occupants of the state going merely within their ain state, Inbound touristry, affecting non-residents going in the another state, and Outbound touristry, affecting occupants going in another state.

In their cardinal text Mathieson and Wall ( 1993 ) follow the Unitied Nations definition by likewise suggesting that touristry is made up of three elements, a dynamic component which involves the travel to a finish, a inactive component which involves the stay in the finish, a eventful component ensuing from the 2 others with effects on the economic, physical, and societal bomber systems with which the tourer is straight or indirectly in contact, and in understanding with Getz ( 1997 ) believe that tourer installations and recreational chances have a major positive part to national economic balance because touristry can be a powerful and good agent in societal and economic alteration. However Schendier ( 1976 ) warns that touristry is still a extremely unstable export topic to strong seasonal fluctuations.

The World Tourism Organization defines tourers as people who ‘travel to and remain in topographic points outside their usual environment for more than 24 hours and non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents non related to the exercising of an activity remunerated from within the topographic point visited ‘ ( World Tourism Organization: 1995: 14. )

Getz ( 1997 ) depicts that the surveies into event and cultural touristry expression at the functions that festivals and other particular events can play in a finishs development and the maximization of an event ‘s attraction to tourers. Getz and Frisby ( 1988 ) and Hall ( 1992 ) imply that events such as a big scale commercial music festival could perchance non merely function as a manner to pull tourers, but besides in helping in the development and care of community and its ain regional individuality.

1.7 Features of Cultural Tourism and its range into festivals.

Cultural Tourism is one of the most of import and quickly spread outing economic and societal phenomena of the modern-day universe Hall ( 1992 ) . Urry ( 1990: 57 ) , Craik, ( 1995: 89 ) , and Leiper ( 1995: 233 ) all argue the term of Cultural touristry is non a new happening but has late become progressively of import. In recent old ages at that place has been a significant turning involvement in the country of cultural touristry, as seen in many cardinal texts such as Mathieson and Wall ( 1993 ) , Richards ( 1996 ) , Gilbert and Lizotte ( 1998 ) and Dodd and Van Hemel ( 1999 ) .

There are many different changing definitions of cultural touristry and one individual definition has non been settled on ( Alzua et Al: 1998 ) . Hughes ( 1996 ) argues that cultural touristry ‘tends to be applied to stumble whenever cultural resources are visited irrespective of any initial motive ‘ . He classifies those tourers who want to see civilization as cultural touristry. However, this definition is really limited. Stebbins ( 1996 ) writes, ‘Cultural touristry is a genre of particular involvement touristry based on the hunt for and engagement in new and deep cultural experiences, whether aesthetic, rational, emotional, or psychological ‘ . This is a utile definition, as it includes a assortment of cultural signifiers, numbering in museums, galleries, festivals, artistic public presentations, and heritage sites. Footings such as ‘Arts touristry ‘ and ‘Heritage touristry ‘ have been used by faculty members ( Smith ( 1989 ) , Hall ( 1992 ) and Prentice ( 1993 ) ) to seek and specifically place and categorize the touristry that the Arts and Arts events like festivals create.

Mathieson and Wall ( 1993 ) believe that the significance of touristry can be shown by graduated table and growing of new authorities policies and tourer sections, they suggest that touristry can be a tool of both societal and economic alteration, because tourism- stimulates employment, investing, and modified land usage. However the growing of touristry has raised inquiries of societal and environmental desirableness for occupants of the local country, authorities sections merely taking to delight the demands of tourers and non the locals and the devastation of local resources and attractive forces.

Issues identified include the menace to host communities sing tourers as encroachers ; the loss of privateness ; devastation of the civilization that attracts visitants as attractive forces are transformed into a ‘museum ‘ ; ill will at sensed development, commoditization and deficiency of audience.

From the occupants ‘ position there are several grounds for the strains

to the cordial reception offered to visitants. One alien may be acceptable, but

in mass a menace exists and implies many of the concerns represented in

the turning literature on negative impacts of touristry. Locals seek to

retain their sense of the territorial imperative, peculiarly at a clip of

inflow generated by festivals ( Leiper, 1995: 240 ) .

The figure of tourers sing a topographic point compared with the size of the

host population and graduated table of the finish, the character of the attractive force

and the grade to which it can be packaged for tourer ingestion,

the organisation of the industry serving tourers ( little or big graduated table,

locally or foreign owned ) , and the economic and societal differences

between hosts and tourers all need to be considered by finish and

event direction ( Urry, 1990: 57-59 ) . How good the host community

anticipates and programs for these is important.

Festivals offer the possible, excessively, to further local organizational

development, leading and networking, all of which are critical underpinnings

of community-based touristry development. It is suggested that

the effect of this procedure would be touristry development more in

maintaining with community wants, more reliable, therefore more hearty to

occupants and visitants and more sustainable over the long term ( Getz,

1997 ) .

Festivals, events and the finish


Getz ‘s ( 1997 ) earlier work propositions that festivals have important functions in their locations town/region, they are attractive forces, image shapers, accelerator for farther developments, introduce better host/guest dealingss, and our able to lengthen tourer seasons.

Rolfe ( 1992 ) suggests that one of the most of import factors that has lead to the popularity and enlargement of festivals in the UK is the that the local governments have sought to capitalize from the touristry and economic benefits that festivals can convey to their local countries. Today festivals are considered to lend significantly to the development of cultural touristry in the UK.

The humanistic disciplines and cultural industries, particularly through festivals and particular events, can offer something for the touristry sector to work experience ( Reiss, 1993 ) . Arts decision makers seek to counterbalance for falling investing from authorities and acknowledge their merchandises can add glamors and a alone travel experience that is otherwise unavailable at a sensible monetary value. Some finishs are exactly in the public mind because they host dramatic public festivals and events. The Carnivale in Rio de Janiero, the Calgary Stampede in Canada, Mardi Gras in New Orleans, Oktoberfest in Munich, the Country Music Festival in Tamworth, Australia, the Edinburgh Festivals in Scotland, and London ‘s Thames Festival wholly now define the finish in footings of a gay trade name. Some of these festivals have been sustained over long periods of clip and seek to fulfill the demands of occupants every bit good as visitants. Oktoberfest started in 1810 to let occupants to observe a royal matrimony and with the subsequent add-ons of Equus caballus races, amusement park amusements and now corporate promotional chances, it attracts seven million visitants each September to Munich.

1.9 Evaluation methods for festivals. – expression at essay 1 events and festivals.

1.4 Economic Impacts of commercial music festivals through touristry.

The festival is thought to hike the Island ‘s economic system by around ?15 million, which festival historian Dr Brian Hinton ( 2007 ) says underestimates the true value of the event: ‘It ‘s non merely the money, every hotel and guesthouse and Television coverage.A There ‘s a immense sum of free publicity.A It ‘s re-branding the Isle of Wight as ‘cool ‘ . ‘ Hall ( 1992 ) indicates that research into the economic impact of festivals is of import because it helps them to be seen in a positive visible radiation by the authorities and the industry looking to offer economical, commercial and promotional benefits.

Some of the chief research that has been focussed on the economic impacts of festivals has come from Gitelson, Kerstetter and Kiernan ( 1995 ) , Formica ( 1998 ) , Getz ( 2000 ) , Harris, Jago, Allen and Huyskens ( 2001 ) , Hede, Jago and Derry ( 2003 ) .

Past festival economic impact research has explored facets such as the sum of money injected into the local community, examined assorted economic multipliers and analysed the nature and extent of occupation creative activity in local countries from festivals ( Getz: 1997, Hall 1992 ) .

Most of the research published is from an overall touristry position as opposed to concentrating on the single administrations and festivals and their impacts. ( Mossberg: 2000, Mason: 2005 )

Rolfe ( 1992 ) Assessed that most festival organizers ‘ entree festival impacts and success by audience size and attending because seeking to entree precisely how much impact has been made is a really complex and non touchable export to mensurate. Schendier ( 1976 ) reverberates this by meaning that touristry is an unseeable export industry non a touchable merchandise that can be measured, because he identified that tourers spend money on accessory goods and services for illustration conveyance, H2O supplies, sewerage and retail. Tourism is a disconnected merchandise integrated with and straight impacting many sectors of the economic system. ( Schendier: 1976 ) .

Gallic sociologist Pierre Bourdieu championed the construct of cultural capital in the 1970s, and that the economic significance of the humanistic disciplines and cultural sector has long been overlooked. Cultural organisations have traditionally been seen as of small economic significance and an implicit in resource for instruction or concern. Equally good as being beginnings of acquisition and cognition, the cultural and originative industries are now progressively recognized as an economic sector in their ain right. Harmonizing to research undertaken by the European Commission, around 7.2 million people are employed in the cultural sector. Between 1995 and 1999, employment in the sector grew by an norm of 2.1 % a twelvemonth, doing it one of the fastest turning countries of the European economic system. It can be seen hence that there is a new relationship emerging between civilization and economic system. In policy footings the job has been the linguistic communication troubles between economic sciences and civilization and the battle with the progressively cardinal function of cultural value within economic production ( O’Connor: 2003 ) .

Turning to the Isle of Wight, an established agenda of events, little and big, took topographic point throughout the twelvemonth to pull visitants. Music events included the Bestival in September, the Jazz Festival in April and the chief Isle of Wight Music Festival in June. Sports events included Cowes Week in August, the Walking Festival in May and a Cycling Festival in September. Many more events were held through the twelvemonth. During the touristry twelvemonth of 2007/2008 an estimated 2.56 million visits were made to the Isle of Wight ( domestic and abroad occupants ) , an addition of 2.5 % versus last twelvemonth. 60 % of these were remaining trips, in line with last twelvemonth, bring forthing touristry gross estimated at ?356 million. ( ISLE OF WIGHT TAVEL TOURISM ) .

1.5 Social Impacts of commercial music festivals and Tourism.

77 ) touristry and employment ( goffe 1975:26 ) – three types of employment from touristry, direct employment from visitant outgo, indirect employment, induced employment by locals re-spending from extra excess money from touristry. ( 86-87 ) jobs with economic impacts on local countries. ( 133 ) societal impacts ( affeld 75:109 ) 3 different ways to look at impacts on the tourer, the host and the tourer -host interrelatedness. ( 138 )

( 33 ) ( Getz:97 ) festivals have important function in town/region, they are attractive forces, image shapers, accelerator for futher developments, introduce better host/guest dealingss, lengthen tourer season. ( gilbert and lizotte 98:73 ) specifying feature of a festival is that its transcience – non to patronize creates exhilaration. Media coverage generated by events helps finishs build assurance and a positive image in the touristry market place. the more a festival is seen as coming from within a community and non imposed the greater the credence by locals.

Media coverage generated by events helps finishs build assurance and a positive image in the touristry market place.

Culture is cardinal to advancing the continued Renaissance of the metropolis and has a function to play in making a more inclusive and sustainable community. Culture creates occupations, attracts investing and enriches the lives of people who live and work in and see the metropolis. Culture brings differentiation to the image and profile of the metropolis ; it enriches the experience of the metropolis Centre and makes each community unique in its history or sense of topographic point. Culture is an indispensable originative force in the new knowledge-based economic system and helps to construct accomplishments and assurance in people. Cities are eventually recognizing the economic potency of their cultural merchandises and are looking strategically at positioning and back uping them. Manchester City Council in their cultural scheme acknowledges the importance of the cultural economic system and aim ‘to maximise the direct and indirect benefits of the City ‘s cultural economic system, its part to Manchester ‘s typical individuality and to invention in concern and instruction ‘ ( Manchester City Council, 2002 ) . ( ROBERTSON 2004 )

There are legion mentions to societal and cultural impacts in journal articles and text editions on events ( eg, Walsh-Heron and Stevens, 1990 ; Getz, 1991 ; McDonnell et Al, 1999 ; Van Der Wagen, 2001 ) but they tend to concentrate chiefly on economic advantage, direction and selling. However, the above writers note that festivals and events have been elements of community tradition for a long clip, are turning in figure and assortment, and are progressively linked with touristry. However, the conducive ability of events can non be measured simply by the Numberss of visitants or the expertness with which they are organized. Are at that place event properties which help people from different societal and cultural backgrounds to understand and sympathize with each other? It is widely submitted that community pride and internal relationships may be strengthened through engagement in mounting an event, and visitants may get greater apprehension and grasp of the community traditions and manner of life. Small-scale events such as small town festivals draw visitants from environing territories and may assist give visitants from urban countries a more accurate perceptual experience of rural life. This facet of events may best be seen in local vino and nutrient festivals, normally to a great extent dependent on voluntary inputs, and supplying a agency by which communities can corroborate and pass on pride in their local merchandises.

A sense of community is an about unseeable yet critical portion of a healthy community.

Though difficult to specify, it includes a community ‘s image, spirit, character, pride,

relationships and networking ( Bush, 2002 ) . A sense of community comes from a

shared vision, where a clear sense of intent values individual ‘s thoughts and

part and involves working together on community issues, jubilations and

job work outing. Developing a sense of community is disputing long-run work,

edifice degrees of connection, belonging and support ( Duga & A ; Schweitzer, 1997 ) .

Trotter ( 1999:39 ) suggests the individuality, cultural experience and sense of

topographic point are the new objects of touristry, and visitants will cognize when they are non

present. Peoples turn to their civilization as a agency of self-definition and mobilise to

asseverate their local cultural values ( Adams & A ; Goldbard, 2001 ) . Festivals can reflect the

dynamic value systems of persons united by the same imposts, images, corporate

memory, wonts and experiences. Festivals can be replicated and each coevals can

base on balls on something of its experience to the following.

1.6 Negative Impacts of commercial music festivals and touristry.

( 141 ) widely agreed resident threshold of tolerance of tourers which varies spatially and temporarily, every bit long as Numberss and negative impacts remain low, if threshold crossed so symptoms of mild apathy and annoyance to extreme xenophobia, and stewing to open detonation, tolerance varies between- the cultural and economic differences between tourers and host, the physical and psychological capablenesss to absorbs figure of tourers and their activities, the celerity and strength of tourer development. ( 142 ) ( Jordan 1980 ) although the support of occupants may be derive from the presence of tourers, they view the approaching season with assorted feeling, and value the off season when merely lasting occupants are present. Conditionss in which tourer annoyance happens: the physical presence of tourists- big groups, congestion. The presentation consequence – occupants resent evident stuff high quality of visitants, foreign ownership and employment – the employment of non locals ( neo colonialism ) . ( 35 ) ( mcdonnell et al 1999 ) each host administration has a duty to the host community and other stakeholders to efficaciously pull off the festival. The importance of community audience is really of import sustainability demands to be built into the planning of an event to minimise inauspicious impacts and let for benefits for the host community. ( 36 ) Hostilitiess can originate from issues like crowd control, traffic, noise, inflow of visitants, litter, one to local comfortss and edifices.

( 36 ) Hostilitiess can originate from issues like crowd control, traffic, noise, inflow of visitants, litter, one to local comfortss and edifices. ( 38 ) many audience members will wish to statisfy wonder about the local topographic point and people, festivals offer chances for visitants to apprectate and research local sights and people = run into new people spend money, participants spread narratives and experiences at place to friends = word of oral cavity publicity. ( 38 ) – ( dimmock and tiyce,2001: Gunn,1994 ) festivals identified as one of the fastest turning signifiers of lesuire and touristry.

the more a festival is seen as coming from within a community and non imposed the greater the credence by locals. ( Schendier: 1976 ) 5 ) touristry equals a apparition of jobs like devastation of traditional life styles, neo -colonialist relationships of development, overdependence upon an un reliable, individual industry and rising prices Last touristry is a extremely unstable export topic to strong seasonal fluctuations ‘ .

it is likely that some possible visitants interested in geting a better apprehension of the host community will be discouraged by the crowding and increased costs associated with such events ( de Souto, 1993 ) . Although attending at an event may supply visitants with intercultural contacts, the experience is fliting and still comparatively superficial. In add-on, certain events, peculiarly festivals, are valued because they emphasize the differences, instead than the commonalty, between hosts and visitants, a general dissentious procedure referred to as ‘othering ‘ ( Hollinshead, 1998 ) . a major menace to event

touristry as an instrument of peace is the volume and nature of the demand it generates

( Muller, 1997 ) , and this is non confined to Numberss of visitants. Event visitants, like

other tourers, may demand a hedonic, self-indulgent life style which contrasts

aggressively with the community conditions in which these outlooks are met.

trust on instruction and the sustainability ethic to help in the

development of more appropriate events may be misplaced. Stabler ( 1997 ) claims that

sustainability direction tends to concentrate on viability and resource protection instead

than community public assistance, and suggests that it may be an industrialised state construct

foisted on developing states. Wheeler ( 1997 ) reminds us that the more educated

people are, the more they travel ; that the Numberss involved are excessively big for any

sensitisation plan to hold consequence ; and that host communities desperate for

economic benefits have small bargaining power and will non enforce environmental

and growing controls.

It is submitted here that large-scale events are least likely to supply the needed type

of contact, and that there is a demand to acknowledge the value of little, mundane events in

informing visitants about the indispensable character of a community ( Kelly, 1991 )

It is further submitted that positive impacts are more likely to happen if those involved,

both hosts and invitees, are open-minded, free from bias and inclined towards

good will ( Kelly, 1998 ) .

1.9 Successful event direction of commercial music festivals.

2.0 Background of the Isle of Wight.

2.1 The Isle of Wight Festival.

Schuker ( 2005: 105 ) surmises that the growing and beginning of the common twenty-four hours commercial rock/pop music festival as we know it now was foremost emerged in the late 60 ‘s and early 70 ‘s with the

2.2 Summery of Literature Review.