Assessment Of Selected Resorts In Cavite Province Biology Essay

Resorts in the state of Cavite are recognized for its reputable recreational Waterss. These resorts are intended to supply prospective clients with an ambiance of amusement, amusement and relaxation. The most common types are beach resorts, swimming pool, and even lakes and rivers which are designed to suit persons, group of equals and household members ( Bago and Linantud 2004 ) . Besides recreational Waterss offer activities that are good and significant to overall wellness.

Recreational Waterss can be contaminated and polluted by bacteriums, viruses and protozoon parasites ( Bitton 1999 ) , although the recreational H2O is usually treated physically and chemically utilizing filtration and chlorination to forestall growing and infection of some bacteriums ( Montano and Abear 2000 ) . However there are was an increasing figure of instances of acute stomach flu during this summer and one group of bugs taking to their disease are enteral bacteriums.

Bacterias such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonass aeruginosa that are immune and tolerant to chlorine and were known to do human wretchedness ( Mann 2005 ) . Enteric Bacteria are said to be ill-famed and unsafe because they cause recreational H2O unwellness like ague stomach flu, cholera, pneumonia, typoid febrility, diarrhoea, urinary infection, pneumonia, dermatitis, salmonellosis and otitis external these disease leads to outbreaks ( Yoder 2008 ) . Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among those bacteriums that can boom in recreational Waterss and transmitted from get downing and inhaling contaminated H2O before the micro-organisms can be destroyed by pool H2O germicide ( Barwicks et al. 1999 ) . Besides their resilience to turn in some germicides like Cl because they are capsulated bacteriums and they possess a various metabolic activity, which makes gives them the opposition to a assortment of physical conditions ( Cappuccino 2005 ) . The presence of these beings indicates taint by infective micro-organism. Most waterborne diseases are related to pollution of H2O resources beginnings and therefore present an unacceptable wellness hazard for swimmers ( Schets et al. 2010 ) . Therefore the demand to analyze H2O samples in a microbiological H2O facet is indispensable to guarantee safety to swimmers.

This survey is conducted to back up if the selected resorts in Cavite whether chlorinated and non-chlorinate is contaminated with infective micro-organism that can take to possible waterborne diseases.

1.2 Conceptual Model

The H2O territories guarantee the potability of imbibing H2O by increasing the concentration of Chlorine ( Yoder 2008 ) . This drinkable imbibing H2O were besides used in resorts. Monthly sampling of H2O samples in pools render negative in enteral bacteriums. However there is an increasing instances of stomach flu for the past twelvemonth.

The paradigm of the present survey is as follows:

Microbial Status in Chlorinated and non- chlorinated Waterss

from selected resorts

Water samples from resorts ( pools, watercourses, rivers and beaches )

erectile dysfunction

The aim of this survey is to garner different H2O samples obtained from selected resorts and find the microbic position regardless of its Cl concentration degrees.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

This survey will take to find the microbic position in selected resorts in Cavite.

To find specifically the undermentioned aims:

1. What is the microbic position jpresent in chlorinated and non -chlorinated H2O in selected resorts in Cavite?

2. Is there a important difference in the entire count of enteral bacteriums and entire bacteriums among chlorinated and non-chlorinated Waterss in selected resorts in Cavite?

3. Is at that place a correlativity between chlorine concentration in the resorts and H2O samples in lakes, rivers and beaches?

1.4 Scope and Delimitation

The survey will find microbic position in selected resorts in Cavite, Province. Water samples will be taken from these selected resorts and Cl content concentration will be determined utilizing chlorine trial kits. It is non the purpose of the survey to use antibacterial agent in enteral bacteriums recovered from H2O analysis.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This survey is designed to happen out the microbic position on the selected resorts in Cavite, Philippines. This research hopes to profit the followers concerned population:

Resort patronage to be more concerned to the countries that they went to and be prepared since traditional vaccinums are non dependable in killing these bacteriums because they are hazardous and are merely effectual after several old ages.

Resort Administrators and Maintenance forces for the sweetening of installations of the swimming pool to advance the preventative steps against proliferation of micro-organism which are recognized to be wellness hazard jobs and conformity to the H2O quality criterions.

Academe who may utilize this as preliminary information for their future research enterprises and information in endurance of bacteriums in different environmental conditions.

1.6 Definition of Footings

Microbial position – this refers to the bacteriums present in chlorinated and non-chlorinated Waterss from selected resorts.

Prevalence – the figure of samples that rendered positive in civilization method over the entire figure of samples.

Enteric Bacteria – these are big group of Gram-negative bacteriums that are known to bring forth disease in the alimental piece of land. Enteric bacteriums that survived in chlorinated Waterss of resorts.

Resorts – it is considered to be swimming pools, watercourses, river, lakes and beaches with Cl.

Microbial Density- The population or the measuring of the growing of the bacteriums.

Microbial Plating- This refers technique used to insulate a pureA strainA from a individual species of micro-organism plating method that will be performed in research lab.

Entire Bacteria – bacterium other than enteral bacteriums.

API Kit- This refers to the biochemical trial that will find the stray bacteriums from H2O samples.

Chlorination- this is a H2O purification method to do H2O safe to worlds and a disinfecting agent that prevents the spread the spread of waterborne diseases

Chlorine trial kit- This refers to the chemical trial that will find the chlorine concentration degree of H2O.

Chromogenic Media – This refers to the culturing media that will find the present bacteriums in H2O.

Chapter 2

REVIEW LITERATURES

2.1 Conceptual Literatures

Recreational H2O

Recreational Waterss can be classified as fresh H2O swimming pools, vortexs and of course happening fresh Marine surface Waterss. Infectious disease which can be transmitted by recreational H2O includes tegument, oculus and ear infections and stomach flu. Consequently the degree of micro-organism in recreational H2O are of import for indexing their wellness jeopardy associated with swimming and since the diversion categorization includes bathing, swimming etc. any being transmitted to worlds can be regulated. The best indexs in the appraisal of the safety of swimming pool H2O is to go cognizant of the types of jeopardy ( microbiological, chemical and physical ) that can impact a bathing country. Some research workers emphasize that the microbiological quality of swimming pools are best step by placing the bacterium nowadays in that recreational H2O such as faecal coliform and enterococci, while others consider that the disease and symptoms it brought to the swimmers instead than faecal taint ( Martin et al. 1995 ) .

( Montano and Abear 2000 ) cited that the bacteriums suggested as indexs of recreational H2O quality include a broad assortment of infective bacteriums and non-pathogenic micro-organism such as coliform groups, species of Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and in rare instance Legionella. The presence of individual coliform being is non a land for reprobating H2O as a unit for human ingestion. It is the comparative copiousness of these beings, which is of import.

Harmonizing to Papadopoulou et Al. ( 2007 ) cited that non-fecal human casting ( e.g. from puke, mucous secretion, spit or tegument ) in the swimming pool is besides a possible beginning of infective being. Swimmers who are already infected can straight pollute pool Waterss with pathogen which may impact other swimmers, who come in contact with the contaminated H2O. ‘Opportunistic pathogens ‘ ( chiefly bacteriums ) can besides be shed from user and transmitted via contaminated H2O. Besides certain free life aquatic bacteriums and amebas can perchance turn non merely in pool Waterss but besides with pool constituents or installations or on other wet surfaces within the installation which may do infections or disease. Therefore swimming pools are frequently associated with eruptions or incidents of waterborne infection.

Murdoch ( 1975 ) as cited by Amador and Amante ( 2001 ) mentioned that disease contracted from H2O kill some 25million people, most of them kids each twelvemonth, while many 1000000s more are debilitated by waterborne diseases. Faecal taint of H2O can present a assortment pathogens into H2O waste, including bacteriums, viruses, protozoons and parasitic worms. Waterborne related diseases have been recognized by Classes. Class 1, refers to the true waterborne disease contracted by imbibing H2O. Class 2 are diseases associated with deficiency of personal hygiene which can be reduced by supplying equal sum of H2O for bathing and lavation. To command such diseases, people should be provided with sufficient H2O of sensible quality ; accomplishing a high bacteriological quality is a secondary consideration.

Enteric bacteriums

A big, heterogeneous group in the household Enterobacteriaceae, include several closely related genera of short and spore forming, Gram-negative rods, facultative anaerobic, that inhabit or produce disease in the alimental piece of land of warm-blooded animate being. This household are ill-famed as causes of urinary piece of land infection and are recovered from a assortment of clinical specimens taken from diseased focal point other than in the GI piece of land. The enteric bacteria are likely responsible for more human wretchedness than any other group. ( Smith 2008 )

Escherichia coli

It is a gram negative rod shaped bacteria. It was originally known as bacteria coli. It is widely distributed in the bowel of worlds and warm- blooded animate beings and is the prevailing facultative anaerobe in the bowel portion of the indispensable enteric vegetations that maintains the physiology of the healthy host. The presence of E.coli is associated with bather-associated unwellness, but its absence can non be equated with the deficiency of hazard of unwellness ( Guidelines for Canadian Recreational Water Quality available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecy.wa.gov1992 ) .

Pathogenicity performs coliform B normally do no perforate enteric wall to bring forth disease unless ( 1 ) the enteric wall becomes diseased, ( 2 ) opposition of the host is lowered, or ( 3 ) virulency of the being is greatly increased. Under one of these conditions of coliforms may go through to abdominal pit or enter into the blood stream. Once outside the enteric canal and in the tissues of the organic structure their virulency is unusually enhanced. Among the diseases that they cause are pyelonephritis, cystitis, cholecystitis, abscesses, peritoneal inflammation, and meningitis. They may play a portion in the formation of bilestones and are found in the nucleuss of such rocks. In peritoneal inflammation perplexing enteric perforation the coliform group is joined by such beings as streptococcus and staphylococcus. From any focal point of redness coliform being may come in the blood stream to bring forth a blood poisoning. ( Smith 2008 )

Shigella

Dysentery caused by the Shiga B ( Shigella dysenteriae ) is much more terrible than that from the other beings, since this B produces a powerful exotoxin- like substance in add-on to an endotoxin. The exotoxin- like substance seems to be liberated by bacterial decomposition, and as a neurolysin, It acts on the nervous system to paralyse the host. The endotoxin irritates the enteric canal.

The dysentery B are gram negative, nonsporebearing rods that grow on all ordinary media at temperatures from 10A° to 42A° C. but best at 37A° C they are aerophilic and facultative anaerobic. Unlike most other members most other member of the enteral group, they are non-motile.

In footings of pathogenicity dysentery is a human disease and natural infections of the lower animate beings do non happen. The incubation period is 1 to 7 yearss. Epidemic dysentery is chiefly an enteric infection. Unlike typhoid B, the beings do no occupy the blood stream and are rarely if of all time found in the internal variety meats or excreted in the piss. They are excreted in the fecal matters. Compared to that for other enteral pathogen, the figure of ingested shigellas for infection is little, merely 10 to 100. ( Smith 2008 )

Salmonella

Among the big figure of infective micro-organisms doing foodborne disease, Salmonella plays an of import function. An analysis of Salmonella surveillance informations from the World Health Organization ( WHO ) showed that the reported figure of instances increased in 22 out of 49 states examined. Although the ground for the planetary addition is non yet clear, probes in single states suggest that it is related to ingestion of eggs and domestic fowl that harbour the being. Besides control steps there is a demand for rapid and sensitive methods for the sensing of Salmonella ( Beumer et. Al, 1991 ) . Salmonella is a omnipresent enteral pathogen with a world-wide distribution that comprises big figure of serovars characterized by different host specificity and distribution. This micro-organism is one of the prima causes of enteric unwellness through the universe every bit good as the aetiologic agent of more terrible systemic diseases such as enteric fever and paratyphoid febrility.

Zoonotic salmonellae are normally described as foodborne pathogens nevertheless ; imbibing H2O every bit good as natural Waterss is known to be an of import beginning for the transmittal of these enteral micro-organisms. Salmonella, merely like other enteral bacteriums, is spread by the fecal-oral path of taint. This micro-organism can come in the aquatic environment straight with fecal matters of septic worlds or animate beings or indirectly, e.g. , via sewerage discharge or agricultural land run off.

Overall Salmonella spp. and races can be found in a big assortment of craniates. Beside worlds, carnal beginnings of Salmonella include pets, farm animate beings and wild animate beings ; calves, domestic fowl, hogs, sheep every bit good as wild bird ( pigeon ) and reptilians can all be reservoirs of Salmonella. Plants, insects and algae were besides found capable of harbouring Salmonella and might be implicated in the transmittal of this enteral pathogen. Taxonomically the genus Salmonella comprises two species viz. S. bongori and S. enterica. The species S. enterica is farther differentiated in to six races ( enterica, salamae, arizonae, diarizonae, indica and houtenae ) among which the S. enterica races enterica is chiefly associated to human and other warm blooded craniates. Enteric febrilities, enteric fever and paratyphoid febrility are terrible, contagious systemic diseases caused by the infection of the serovars typhi and Paratyphi. Differently from other Salmonella serovars, typhi and Paratyphi are host altered and can merely infect worlds ; stools of septic individuals are hence the original beginning of taints for these pathogens.

Water contaminated with fecal matters of human instances and bearers is one of the chief vehicles of enteric fever febrility infections. Literature informations related to water-borne salmonellae in developing states relate largely the enteric fever Salmonella serovars. In the less industrialised country of the universe, in peculiar in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia, enteric fever and paratyphoid febrilities occur both in epidemic and endemic signifier, and remain a major public wellness job. The load of typhoid febrility worldwide is farther compounded by the spread of multiple drug immune S. typhi.

Most of the recent publications on enteric fever and paratyphoid febrility water-borne infections in developing states are from the Asiatic continent. Differently from typhoidal Salmonella strains, non-typhoidal salmonellae, the omnipresent subtypes found in a figure of carnal species, are more often associated to foodborne than to water-borne transmittal. These zoonotic Salmonella serovars tend to do acute but normally self-limiting stomach flu ( Levantesi et al, 2011 ) .

Harmonizing to ( Smith 2008 ) The pathogenicity of salmonella is called salmonellosis, the major site of which the liner of the enteric piece of land. Because of their toxic belongingss every known strain of salmonella can do anyone three types of salmonellosis: ( 1 ) ague stomach flu of the nutrient type infection. ( 2 ) blood poisoning or acute sepsis with localised complications similar to pyogenic infections, and ( 3 ) enteric febrility such as enteric fever or paratyphoid febrilities.

Salmonella typhi

A short motile nonencapsulated B, S.typhi grows luxuriantly on all ordinary media. It grows best under aerophilic conditions spot may turn anaerobically. The temperature scope growing is from 4A° to 40A°C. , the optimum, 37A°C. typhoid B can last outside the organic structure, populating about 1 hebdomad in sewerage contaminated H2O and non merely populating but multiplying in milk. They may be feasible in faecal affair for 1 or 2 months. They are infective because of their endotoxins.

Their pathogenicity causes typhoid febrility is an acute infective disease with uninterrupted febrility, skin eruptions, intestine perturbations, and profound toxaemia of pregnancy. Except in the first few yearss, leucopenia is ever present in unsophisticated instances, likely because typhoid B depress the bone marrow, where normal production of white blood cells occurs. Leukocytosis in the class of the disease signals complication. ( Smith 2008 )

2.2 Related Surveies

Harmonizing to Brown ( 2009 ) , Gram-negative enteric pathogens have a diverse population of bacteriums of which two of the enteral enteric pathogens that are of premier medical concern are the salmonella and shigella. The salmonella and shigella are both infective bacteriums that cause typhoid febrility and human dysentery, severally. Since the Gram-negative enteric pathogens has a such diverse population it has many genera of species like the Escherichia, Proteus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium that exists on big Numberss, hence it is necessary to utilize media that are differential and selective to prefer the growing of the pathogens since all of the species can be divided into lactose zymosis and non-lactose zymosis bacteriums.

Hiriart et Al. ( 2001 ) worked on the Helicobacter pylori and Other Enteric Bacteria in Freshwater Environments in Mexico City. They observed that all samples analyzed showed the presence of enteral bacteriums with or without the presence of H. pylori, bespeaking that H2O from these beginnings is a possible wellness hazard for GI diseases. The major positiveness of H. pylori coincides with the major positiveness of index and other enteral bacteriums, which are both associated with contaminated H2O.

In another survey Marion et Al. ( 2010 ) worked on the association GI unwellness and recreational H2O exposure at an inland U.S beach. Relationships between H2O quality indexs and reported inauspicious wellness results among users of a beach at an inland U.S lake was observed to be a important hazard factor for GI unwellness.

.

Papadopoulo et Al. ( 2008 ) worked on the microbic quality of indoor and out-of-door swimming pools in Greece. They found out that three indoor swimming pools and two out-of-door swimming are present with bacteriums, Protozoa and Fungis Such as Multi-resistant Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Leuconostoc, and staphyloccus aureus ( isolated from learning pool ) , Staphylococcus werneri. Chryseobacterium indologenes and Ochrobactrum anthropic ( isolated from completion pools ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia and S. aureus ( isolated from the hydropathy pool and A. hydrophilla ( isolated from the hotel pool ) were related to H2O eruptions.

Schets et Al. ( 2010 ) worked on the exposure appraisals for swimmers in bathing Waterss and swimming pools. they found out that the swallowed volume or H2O appears different for work forces, adult females, and kids, but besides in fresh H2O, saltwater and swimming pools besides the frequence and continuance of swimming bash besides differ for work forces, adult females, and kids and in different H2O types, and supply a footing for the designation of high hazard population under specific fortunes, e.g. due to their drawn-out H2O contact and frequent caput submergences, kids may be more prone to contract otitis external due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

Surely a waterborne infection depends on the entire bacterial counts, the immune position of the topics, and polluted Waterss. The consequences of the past surveies demonstrate the variableness of the recreational H2O quality and the demand for uninterrupted monitoring.

Chapter 3

Methodology

Research Design

This survey will utilize descriptive survey design that involves in the designation of enteral bacteriums in selected resorts in the Cavite state. There will be 20 trying sites, 10 from swimming pools, 5 from rivers or lakes and 5 from beaches. In every sampling site there will be a sum of 1 sample that will be gathered and it will be replicated into three and a sum of 60 sterilised bottles with screen will be used for the 4-month period of experiment that will be done during the summer season and the rainy season.

Research Puting

The full survey will be conducted for 12 hebdomads. The designation of entire bacteriums and enteral bacteriums will be done in Biology Research Laboratory of DLSU-D.

Research Procedure

Water Sample Collection ( MicroMed Environmental, 2010 )

Sterilized 300ml wide-mouthed glass will be used in the aggregation of samples. Water samples will be obtained from recreational Waterss. The unfertile containers will be dip into the H2O surface until 1 pes below. Then open the bottle towards the way of the current to let the container to make full. Afterwards, it will be instantly sealed tightly and placed on a ice chest to keep the temperature. The samples will be obtained during the months of April and June of 2012. The Cl concentration will besides be measured utilizing Hach Test Kit for Cl.

Chromogenic Media for Bacteria

Undiluted samples will be used in the finding of entire bacteriums. Briefly one millilitre of sample will be spread plated onto Plate Count Agar. The home bases will be incubated at 37A°C for 24 hours. Colonies that will turn will be converted into settlement organizing units and will be correlated to chlorine concentration and compared to enteric bacteriums.

For the sensing of enteral bacteriums the samples will be enriched in buffered peptone H2O for 24 hours. After 24 hours the enriched samples will be spread plated onto Salmonella-Shigella Agar and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar. Colonies resembling to enteric bacteriums will be purified and confirmed utilizing API 20E kit.

Determination of the Microbial Count ( BioMerieux, 2002 )

Preparation of incubation box and inoculant will be done for the strip. In the vaccination of the strip, make fulling both tubing and acorn cup of trials CIT, VP and GEL with bacterial suspension as for the staying trials fill merely the tubing and non the acorn cup. In making anaerobiosis ADH, LDC, ODC, H2S and URE should be overlay with mineral oil. The incubation box will be incubated for 37A°C for 24 hours. Certain colour reactions will go on for the indicant of positive or negative consequence.

Datas Gathering

Colonies in the EMBA and PCA will be characterized utilizing colonial word picture which includes size, signifier, border, lift, consistence, surface and pigmentation ( Tabo, 2005 ) . Biochemical trial include ONPG, ADH, LDC, ODC, CIT, H2S, URE, TDA, IND, VP, GEL, GLU, MAN, INO, SOR, RHA, SAC, MEL, AMY, ARA, OX. The Cl concentration will be measured in 0-600 mg/L.

Statistical Treatment

To find the correlativity between chlorine concentration and entire bacteriums and enteral bacteriums, a simple correlativity will be used. All statistical analysis will be conducted in STATA 9.0 with 0.05 as degree of significance.

APPENDIX A

GANTT CHART

APPENDIX B

BUDGET PROPOSAL

Item

Volume/Mass

Estimated Price ( PhP )

Measure

Expense ( PhP )

Equipments AND KITS

A

A

A

A

Biomerieux Inc Biomerieux API 20E KIT 100g Pack of 100 20160

13000.00

1

13000.00

Hach ‘s Chlorine Test Strips, 0-600mg/L Pack of 2890200

876.31

1

876.31

Agars

A

A

Salmonella-Shigella Agar

50 g

500.00

1

500.00

Eosin Methylene Blue Agar

50 g

500.00

1

500.00

Plate Count Agar

500.00

1

500.00

Sum

15376.31

APPENDIX C

Letter TO THE HOSPITAL

March 13, 2012

Ms. Teresita E. Guevarra

Medical Records Head

De La Salle University Medical Center

Dear Ms. Guevarra:

Greetings in the name of St. John Baptist De La Salle!

We are composing to inquire permission from you in acquiring information that we will necessitate for our thesis defence on the approaching December 2012. We are Human Biology major pupils from De La Salle University-Dasmarinas and we are traveling to carry on a survey sing the possible prevalence of enteral bacteriums in selected resorts in Dasmarinas, Cavite. Sing this, we would wish to bespeak for the undermentioned information:

Reported instances of salmonellosis and acute stomach flu in this infirmary for the last two old ages ( 2010 and 2011 )

We are trusting for your positive response towards our petition. If of all time the information we need will non be available today, you may reach us at 09164745448 and 09272546946. Thank you really much for your clip.

Sincerely,

Ron Matthew A. Flores

John Paul A. Flores

Noted by:

____________________ _____________________

Mrs. Hazel Ann L. Tabo Dr. Carmelita C. Cervillon

BSD Faculty, DLSU-D ( Thesis Adviser ) College Dean, DLSU-D

_____________________

Ms Cherry Z. Cuevas, MS

BSD Chair, DLSU-D

APPENDIX D

COLOR REACTION

Trial

– Consequence

( negative )

+ RESULTS

( positive )

ONPG

colorless

yellow

Vasopressin

Yellow

red/orange

LDC

Yellow

red/orange

ODC

Yellow

red/orange

CIT

picket green/yellow

blue-green/blue

H2S

colorless/gray

black sedimentation

URE

Yellow

red/orange

TDA

Yellow

brown-red

IND

Yellow

ruddy ( 2 min. )

VP

colorless

pink/red ( 10 min. )

Gel

no diffusion of black

black diffuse

GLU

blue/blue-green

yellow

Man

blue/blue-green

yellow

INO

blue/blue-green

yellow

SOR

blue/blue-green

yellow

RHA

blue/blue-green

yellow

Pouch

blue/blue-green

yellow

MEL

blue/blue-green

yellow

AMY

blue/blue-green

yellow

Ara

blue/blue-green

yellow

Ox

colorless/yellow

violet

LITERATURE CITED

Amador RM, Amante PP. Detection and isolation of coliform bacteriums in Laguna de Bay Brgy. Landayan San Pedro Laguna ; 2001. p.67.

Bago CEM, Linantud JF, Ortiz MP. Stability and Profitability of Resort Business in Dasmarinas, Cavite. 2004. P.1-2-ix-29.

Barwicks RS. , Levy DA. , Craun GF. , Beach MJ. , Calderon RL. 2000.

Surveillance for H2O borne-Disease Outbreaks-united-states,1997-1998 CDC

Brown, A. E. 2005. Benson ‘s Microbiological Applications 9th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

Beumer, R.R. , et al. , 1991. Enzyme-linked immunochemical assaies for the sensing of Salmonella spp. : a comparing with other methods, Elsevier Science Publisher, B.V. 0168-1605/91

Carteciano JA. , 2004. Four Emerging Bacterias: So Tiny, So lifelessly. National

Research Council of the Philippines.

Hammer Sr. M, Hammer Jr. M. Water and waste H2O engineering. New Jersey ; 2004.p.140

Levantesi, C. , et al. , 2011.Salmonella in surface and imbibing H2O: Happening and water-mediated transmittal, Food Research International, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.037 ;

Mann, D. Beware of Recreational Water Illnesses, WebMD. [ Internet ] . 2005 [ cited 2011 December 28 ] .

Available from HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/beware-of-recreational-water-illnesses ”

Marion, J. , et al. , 2010.Association of Gastrointestinal unwellness and recreational H2O exposure at inland U.S beach, H2O research international ;

Martin, M. , et al. , 1995.Assessment of microbiology quality for swimming pools in South America.

MicroMed Environmental, Inc. [ Internet ] . 2010 [ cited 2012 March 25 ] . Available from HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.igmicromed.com/docs.html ”

Montano JM, Abear R. 2000.Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in relation to microbic population of selected swimming pools in dasmarinas cavite. De la Salle University Dasmarinas. p.52.

Schets F. , et al. , Exposure Assessment of swimmers in bathing H2O and swimming pools, H2O research. 2010.

Tabo, Norbel A. 2005. Laboratory Manual in Microbiology, Rex Bookstore Inc, Manila. p. 63-67

Yoder JS. , Hlavasa MC. , Craun GF. , Hill V. , Roberts V. , Yu PA. , Hicks LA. , Alexander NT. , Calderon RL. , Roy SL. , and Beach MJ.2008. Surveillance for waterborne disease and eruptions associated with recreational H2O usage and other aquatic facility- associated wellness events-united provinces 2005-2006- CDC.