British Royal Navy and Royal Marines Essay

Michael Williams

A former military adult male functioning the British Royal Navy and Royal Marines, Michael Williams started his ain consultancy concern in 1979. Following managerial experience in the paper, Fe, steel, technology and automotive industries, he specialises in leading direction, squad and organizational development. He has worked extensively with major corporations in the USA and both western and eastern Europe, including IBM, ICI, British Alcan, AT & A ; T/ISTEL, GUS, McCain ‘s and Shroders. Other clients include taking Business Schools, e.g. IMD at Lausanne and the Theseus Institue, located in Nice. He is a member of the British Psychological Society and the Institute of Directors, the Institute of Directors and the Association of Management Education & A ; Development.

The rich experiences gained functioning in British Particular Forces influenced both his perceptual experience and pattern of leading. The book aims at assisting leaders who need to develop their ain competences but besides need to develop and train the people, who develop the concern. Michael Williams besides explains how leaders can untap the endowment that lies in their administrations, and suggests methods of call uping this potency for successful leading today and tomorrow.

The book is based on research carried out over seven old ages with over 2,500 senior directors in 10 different companies, in USA and Europe.

“ Leadership for leaders ” is a practical usher, full of advice which focuses on constructs and theories that work. The book gives people in leading places some nutrient for idea, steering the reader to the challenges of modern leading.

Summary of chapters 2, 5 and 7

Chapter 2: Leadership theories, function theoretical accounts – and common sense

Following Professor B. Turner who suggests that “ nil is so practical as a theory that works ” , allow ‘s expression at some of the thoughts that four people brought frontward as respects to leading and direction.

Professor John Adair, former soldier, lector, writer and public talker has developed the construct of “ action-centred leading ” , establishing his leading theoretical account on three cardinal maps of leaders: accomplishing the undertaking, keeping the squad and run intoing the demands of the person. The leader will constantly look for equilibrium between these three maps.

Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard developed the construct of “ situational leading ” whereby functional adulthood of the squad members is a major determiner of the manner and focal point that need to be adopted by leaders, in order to arouse the optimal productive responses from people. In other words, if people are non sufficiently competent to make what they are asked to make, confident that they are able to accomplish it, committed and motivated to make it, they will neglect. The higher the functional adulthood the most delegating and even authorising is possible.

Noel Tichy evolved the construct of Leadership “ engine ” whereby the leader is indispensable as the activating and driving force in corporate activity. He leads by illustration ; effectual mobilisation of people is cardinal to his function and primary part to the administration. The leading “ engine ” has three distinguishable aspects: a ) leaders are responsible for guaranting that there are sufficient thoughts and information flowing, that are relevant to the undertaking on manus ; B ) in taking by illustration ( walk to speak ) leaders provide a continual life presentation of the values which represent the nucleus civilization of the squad or group ; c ) the E3 factor which is made up of emotion and thrust to acquire the occupation done good, energy and ability to stimulate others and make energy and synergism where none existed antecedently, “ border ” – which is the ability to take necessary tough determinations and remain resolute and resilient, in conditions of hardship or high force per unit area ( “ if unrecorded gives you lemons, so do lemonade! ” ) . Edge represents the difference between those who win and those who lose in today ‘s competitory universe.

Jim Collins defines his leading theoretical account as “ Level 5 leading ”

Leaderships first expression at acquiring the right people onboard and in the right functions and so they set the right waies. This besides means that degree 5 leaders should acquire rid of the incorrect people. These leaders are besides consistent with a strong sense of answerability and high “ say-do ” credibleness. They create ever-increasing impulse and transform their companies from good to great ( besides the rubric of one of his celebrated books ) . Leaderships will oppugn why things do non work and will be given to extinguish the grounds ( or people ) doing the failure to win. Collins illustrates his theory with the “ Hedgehog Concept ” whereas, in contrast to flim-flam that know a batch of little things and spread their attempts excessively widely, the porcupine recognises the critical factor and focal points on a individual thought. Good-to-great leaders seem to be “ Hedgehogs ” instead than “ Foxes ” . Level 5 leaders are disciplined people who lead through a combination of professional thrust ( concentrate on the concern, non themselves ) and personal humbleness.

Low-key “ thought ” leading

Leaderships in that “ class ” are able to affect others in their actions. They focus on the ultimate ends of the concern. However, there can be disadvantages for that type of leaders as they may be identified as “ gray nonexistence ” and “ accused ” of deficiency of personality. Bing a “ quiet ” leader can be hard, particularly when some of them are criticized for non projecting their personal profiles sufficiently, in the public involvement of their companies. That said, some subdued leaders have been first-class in transforming their companies into prima concerns ( ex. Terry Leahy of Tesco, Rose Marie Bravo of Burberry ) .

Experience and theory – a necessary synthesis

If experience is the most practical beginning of acquisition, theory can give context and position to see by supplying links and penetrations that will heighten focal point and give way to larning. Leadership is one of the most discussed, yet least understood phenomena. The theories, theoretical accounts and constructs provide penetrations into the map of leader. They can be used as a footing for farther development of a leader ‘s competences and manners and supply a practical footing for both progressive coaching and managed self-development for leaders.

Chapter 5: Great leaders develop more great leaders


The word “ endowment ” can be perceived and defined in many different ways. In most administrations there is the demand to see endowment as a series of mention points and specify the mentalities and competences required in specific behavioral footings.

What do we intend by “ endowment ” ?

Harmonizing to Buckingham and Coffman in their research with the Gallup Organisation, beyond cognition and accomplishments, endowments are seen in the signifier of of course repeating forms of ideas, feelings and behaviors. There are endeavoring endowments which reflect the demand to accomplish, believing endowments that indicate structured and disciplined thought or penchant for last minute determination, and associating endowments, which include the ability to excite and act upon others.

Professor Ed Schein identified forms of high energy – high battle behavior to organize the footing of his “ calling orientations study ” . His instrument seeks to corroborate the demands and thrusts of a individual ‘s endowments above and beyond “ know-how ” . He identified a series of drivers called “ calling ground tackles ” and associated them with their high degrees of endowment or “ do-how ” ( ex. the “ general direction ” calling ground tackle is associated with the concern to influence and mobilise to accomplish ends ) .

Schein ‘s classs provide countries in which to corroborate, explore and develop endowment. However, psychometric instruments bring forth informations that is comparative and declarative. Endowment, as such, is typically defined in matter-of-fact and functional footings, based upon state of affairs, context or function demands.

Based on his surveies, the word “ talented ” describes people who on a regular basis demonstrate exceeding ability and accomplishment and/or systematically achieve high competency in state of affairss where they have yet to be tested to be extremely effectual, i.e. potency.

Perspective, state of affairs and context frequently are the most practical supreme authorities of people ‘s public presentation. The preparedness to accept personal duty and take answerability should be regarded as indispensable endowments.

The appropriate interplay of mature bravery, accountable “ ownership ” and competent autonomy emerge as a bunch of nucleus competences and separate the leaders who get on and do things go on, from those who do n’t.

The critical endowment that such people possess is that they win because they create the fortunes, chances and value, where none seemingly existed before.

Talented people are those who systematically deliver outstanding public presentation in the cardinal consequence countries of their functions. Studies found out that high-flyers appear to be in control of themselves, have clear personal/professional beliefs and understand and acknowledge who they are. These 3 “ endowments ” lead to high assurance and ego belief, no affair the gender, race or age.

Outstanding leaders possess high emotional intelligence. They are capable of speech production, reading and composing with great eloquence and in ways which resonate with others. They non merely learn, they are able to pass on larning to their people, including the possible leaders who report to them.

When leaders ‘ strengths become failings

Leader endowments and strengths can, as a consequence of unanticipated or antecedently non experient force per unit areas, become failings. That can go on when people move from in-between direction ( where they were effectual ) to senior degree ; they lack the endowments needed to animate, mobilise and lead people.

Called “ alphas ” , these people are good up to a certain degree. The inquiry so is how to assist such people become more gifted senior leaders.

The 360 & A ; deg ; appraisal seems to be an effectual tool for training them. The manager seeks to equilibrate positive and critical feedback and keep position and objectiveness on important issues, by acquiring the coachee to corroborate what are basically repeating forms of behaviors. Coachees would so recognize that they have duty for seting things right. Other surveies have shown that strengths can go failings when under force per unit area, for illustration, the careful become over-cautious, the confident become chesty, the focussed become passive-aggressive, etc.

Leaderships developing leaders

Leaderships developing leaders is one of the nucleus issues in pull offing endowment confronting companies. They are the cardinal to competitory advantage and corporate growing and most critical plus that an administration can hold. Pull offing endowment is a uninterrupted procedure, instead than an stray action.

The procedure for developing leaders includes four major jussive moods, which are the basiss of talent direction:

  • Make a victorious work environment ( set the illustration, develop visions, create great occupations )
  • Make endowment direction a critical precedence ( use techniques of feedback, training and mentoring, empower and sponsor people )
  • Create the agencies to place and choose outstanding endowment ( ability to recognize ability )
  • Prosecute endowment to the full – manage it and go on to develop it ( value and affect high performing artists ) .

The leader is responsible for placing and developing the 1s who will take the concern tomorrow.

Leadership possible

Outstanding public presentation is one of the most intimidating challenges confronting direction. If the choice and farther publicity of possible remain hard, some practical “ tips ” exist that can assist place them: high potencies are for illustration invariably funny ; they brake new evidences and better competency through self-evaluation.

High potencies besides seem to possess a “ chopper ” vision, the ability to act upon upwards, take bid, operate aptly, bring forth new solutions, adopt the right behavior and deliver.

A leading manner driven by professional attention and a concern to prosecute, usage to the full and retain gifted people will acquire the best out of the best. Talented high performing artists are an administration ‘s elite of competency and should be recognised as such.

Chapter 7: Leadership – a affair of mentality

Horsepower, HP, HP

Horsepower is the capableness, assurance and mentality which, together, present outstanding consequences. It is besides the disciplined, informed ability to cut through the “ nucleus of averageness ” .

Recruitment and arrangement of HP remains a critical issue in most companies ( CVs really frequently do non reflect world ) and the leader ‘s ultimate duty is to acquire a realistic image of the campaigners strengths and failings.

Mismatchs in choice and publicity can go on ; typical grounds are a ) the picker is non clear about which indexs of possible to utilize ; B ) parties are non clear about what is expected of the job-holder ; degree Celsiuss ) common outlooks may be unrealistically high. Another mismatch can happen when advancing a “ specializer ” to director when the calling move is non prepared, for illustration a extremely gifted specializer becomes an unqualified director. Here once more, the function of the leader and manager is indispensable in doing certain the individual has had adequate preparation and readying to leap into the new place.

Developing a new leading mentality

Effective people are neither “ born ” nor “ made ” . Highly effectual people appear to be active uninterrupted scholars. They have the capableness to acquire relevant information and transform into critical cognition ; they add value to increase possible ; they stimulate openness ; they transfer knowledge ; they recognise that information converted to applied cognition gives concern its film editing border. To internalize cognition, understanding and acquisition, the manager and wise man will trip personal contemplation and self-awareness, promote geographic expedition of personal work experience, stimulate scholar enterprises and solutions, and wake up the procedure of find. Knowledge is non to be confused with myth and phantasy ( a waist of learning ability, energy and resources ) .

Explicit cognition refers to official communicating ( ex. commercial, economic, proficient literature ) . Tacit cognition is the information and derived apprehension that is acquired ( ex. decisions of personal contemplations, reading, … ) . Tacit cognition represents an tremendous power. As the spread between what we know and what we do is turning, there is an increasing demand to change over cognition into behavior. And this is a primary duty of every leader.

Crucial to knowledge acquisition and transportation is for the leader to place where deficiency of critical cognition lies ; the administration ‘s acquisition and reclamation is hence wholly relevant.

Essential to effectual cognition transportation and sharing is the leader mentalities which actively acknowledge project team-working, transparence quality of cognition receptiveness and willingness to go through on information.

Emotional intelligence: A basis of the leading mentality

Emotional intelligence ( EQ ) represents a critical bunch of competences of successful leaders. How important is EQ in the development of the leader mentality? Let ‘s expression at the construction of EQ. Emotional consciousness refers to feelings and emotions ; emotional unity refers to being true to oneself foremost ; emotional competency relates to self-control, emotional synergism is about common trust and regard.

As EQ includes competence bunchs and behaviors such as motive, personal resiliency and struggle declaration, it is reasonable to put it high on any leader ‘s docket for action. In peculiar, these competences contribute to public presentation direction, self-management, constructing working relationships, team-development, developing administrations and their civilizations.

Leaderships who can to the full prosecute intellectually and emotionally with their people will be able to utilize their full potency. However, the fright of weakness is the inhibitor which bottles up silent cognition, endowment and potency. There is possible for merriment, joy of stand outing and satisfaction of exerting endowment in worthwhile endeavor.

As concerns become more planetary the force per unit area to work efficaciously in multi-cultural environments becomes immediate and personal. Leaderships must larn, adapt and take into history the infinite assortment of values, imposts and patterns that can be really different from the 1s they ‘ve been brought up to.

Leaderships into the 21st century demand to inquire themselves what theoretical account of world they have, if it stands close scrutiny by any nonsubjective standards, if there is inappropriate “ luggage ” they should dump and where they place themselves in the universes in which they operate.

The demand for leaders to re-shape and regenerate their mentalities becomes a must if they want to run successfully across diverse civilizations.


The chapters of the book dressed ore on leading theoretical accounts which have become popular in the 80s, go forthing out the transactional theoretical account which did non fit people ‘s considerations of working relationships any longer. Indeed, more and more people had entree to higher instruction, communicating tools were opening up new skylines, travel was acquiring easier, internationalization was deriving land every twenty-four hours. The “ reward-punishment ” rule was no longer suited.

Leaderships who, at the clip, started to affect subsidiaries and shared information and asked for feedback were rather untypical but they had understood that it was the manner to see uninterrupted betterment and increased public presentation.

I ‘d wish to take my ain experience to mention to the theories and leading theoretical accounts presented both in the book and in the category.

When I was at Monroe, a 1 billion USD automotive daze absorbers maker, there was a leader who, to me, combined different theoretical accounts, such as traits, transformational, invitational, engagement, magnetic and airy leading.

John was tall, of course enforcing through assurance and finding. Having a clear vision of where he wanted to convey the company, personal appeal, unity and sociableness were the traits which employees would utilize to measure up him.

Long earlier TQM was introduced, John was concentrating on making the right occupation – right – seting the right people in the right places and concentrating on what needed to done – and what did n’t – to accomplish best-in-class consequences. It might sound chesty but the adult male knew precisely how to place the issues and so repair them. I do n’t believe he was trusting on “ scientific discipline infuse ” , instead he spent clip with employees, inquiring them inquiry like “ how make you experience about this? ” or “ what would you propose? ” . He would ne’er set himself frontward but would ask for employees to come up with thoughts and portion experiences – all for the interest of bettering gross revenues consequences or working conditions. He would so unite people ‘s positions and suggestions with what he was naming his ain “ tummy feeling ” , connoting that he would be the one – as a responsible leader – to take the ultimate determinations. That said, he could be really tough if people whom he was giving latitude to carry on their concern did non esteem the regulations they had – together – worked out and agreed upon. As I heard him one time say: “ there are no male monarchs or Queenss walking down the corridors of this company ” . He was the living illustration of the theoretical account “ walking the talk ” , so he would non digest behaviors that were non in-line with the rules and values of the company.

John besides had the capableness to excite and actuate his squads. He showed enormous engagement and concern for every member, placing with them cardinal countries for betterment while concentrating on the marks ( gross revenues marks ) . He gained trust from everyone and we knew that if the company succeeded it was thanks to each and everyone ‘s part and finding in accomplishing first-class consequences. We all knew that we had our portion of duty. We had taken ownership and were delighted to make so.

He pulled the right triggers to acquire a European gross revenues and selling force ( 150 people at the clip ) up to the highest criterions in footings of border, quality and… felicity.

You might inquire what happened following? John went back to his place state ( Denmark ) . His leading theoretical account – I would even state his doctrine – was integrated and anchored in our heads that it had become portion of our lives. So when he left it was about… concern as usual. Decidedly a great adult male and a great leader!

In the late 90s I joined Visteon, a 20 billion USD automotive provider on the manner to being spun-off from Ford Motor Company. There I saw many gifted leaders who, after the exhilaration and glamourous yearss of independency, had to concentrate on transmutation… Their undertakings were immense sing that Visteon was “ a babe with 100 old ages experience ” , as one of the leaders would specify it. Achieving “ profitable growing ” was their leitmotif and purportedly the action-centred rule to adhere to. The president at that clip was clearly a airy leader. I remember the twenty-four hours I was introduced to him during my first meeting in the US during which he explained to me non merely his vision for the way the company needed to take but besides with mention to what he was anticipating from me. He told me that in my function as European Director of Communications I was an built-in portion of the European leading squad ; he expected me to be a strategic subscriber to the concern in Europe but besides to the US and world-wide operations.

All I said was “ you put the standard really high ” . He replied “ yes, but we ‘re here to give you the tools you need to make your occupation and do n’t be afraid if you make errors – we all do – the of import thing is that you find ways to repair them and larn from them. And retrieve we ‘re here to assist you ” . As I got out of his office, I turned to my foreman and said “ waouw, I need a java and a coffin nail ” . Was n’t this president uniting situational leading with participative direction, transformational leading and emotional intelligence, on top of his airy thought?

This president resigned a few months subsequently and a new one came onboard. Coming from Ford – with his squad of executives – he had a wholly different direction and leading manner, near to the transactional theoretical account. In this peculiar instance “ myth and phantasy ” was immediate. Peoples in the US but besides in Europe started to pay more recognition to “ corporate mythology ” than to official communicating. That combined with the trouble of turning a loss-making company into a profitable concern was for most regional leaders “ mission impossible ” . Programmes on a world-wide degree -conducted by well-know consultancy houses – focused on alteration and transmutation, were implemented one after the other with mere consequences. Employees had considered them as “ merely another programme ” , that would – once more – non work. In their heads nil was traveling to alter anyhow.

A European president was appointed in 2003. He was a extremely regarded individual in the automotive concern and had a path record of success narratives.

I would specify him as a adherent of Jim Collins. Indeed, he urged us to read “ Built to last ” and “ Good to great ” . In two old ages clip he managed to turn European operations back to ( little ) net income. A great accomplishment, sing the context!

However, the whole administration was still trusting on a concern theoretical account that was broken. To cite one senior executive, the company had become “ fat and chesty ” , doing every determination of transmutation virtually impossible to implement. No affair how much the European president changed things he could non alter people who had been at that place everlastingly and were non all ready to really alter their mentalities. I believe it had to make with the fact that, for them, the by-product from Ford was non a good thing. Ford people were attached to the really strong civilization of the company, linked to Henry Ford and transmitted from coevals to coevals. These people who had been used to work in an environment where every action follows a predefined procedure and determinations are taken at the highest degree were all of a sudden asked to take enterprise. Something impossible, even for senior directors! No admiration they felt as acquiring an electro-shock when the European president talked about being responsible and accountable for their consequences.

In this peculiar instance I believe the context was excessively heavy for the leader to permute his leading positions and rules. The president resigned in 2006 and today Visteon hardly exists in Europe.

As to leading in the 21st century I ‘m inclined to believe that leaders will necessitate, on top of leading theoretical accounts and emotional intelligence, to be sensitive to different civilizations. Having been exposed to different civilizations from my early professional experience, I can merely reenforce Michael Williams ‘ mention to Fritz Perls ‘ exhortation: “ lose your head – and happen yourself ” .

If I need to reason I ‘ll state that my take away from the book and the categories have help me seting a theory behind the life theoretical accounts of leading I have seen in my calling. It ‘s been an eye-opener on certain behaviors and it has helped me understand how good and gifted leaders can “ do it go on ” and why sometimes they are faced with “ mission impossible ” .