Charles Darwin And Herbert Spencer Research Essay

Charles Darwin And Herbert Spencer Essay, Research Paper

Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer

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Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, revolutionized biological science with his

theory of development through the procedure of natural choice. Herbert Spencer

was the major philosopher of biological and societal development. Spencer & # 8217 ; s work

significantly influenced nineteenth century developments in biological science, psychological science,

sociology and anthropology. While Darwin was influential in the Fieldss of

natural history and geology, his theory of development created great contention.

He changed the manner people thought about the function of worlds in the natural universe.

Although these two work forces made promotion in the theory of development they had

contrasting positions sing anthropological survey.

Charles Darwin was an English naturalist who foremost solidly established

the theory of organic development, in his work, The Origin of Species. Darwin was

born in Shresbury, Shropshire on February 12, 1809. His gramps, Erasmus

Darwin, was a celebrated English scientist and poet. In 1825 the immature Darwin went

to Edinburgh University to go a physician. The same twelvemonth, nevertheless, he

transferred to Christ & # 8217 ; s College in Cambridge in order to go a reverend.

During this clip he befriended a adult male of scientific discipline, John Steven Henslow. It was

Henslow who recommended him for the unpaid place of naturalist on the H.M.S.


Darwin set canvas on December 27, 1831 to analyze the Pacific seashore of South

America and the Pacific Islands. His other responsibility was to put up pilotage

Stationss in the country. He besides studied the geology and biological science of these countries.

Upon his return in 1839, Darwin married his cousin, Emma Wedgewood, and was

admitted to the Royal Society. He moved to Downe, Kent in 1842, and was plagued

by sick wellness until his decease. He seemingly transmitted Trypanosomiastis from

frequent bug bites in the Pacific. Darwin died on April 19, 1882 and was buried

in Westminster Abbey.

In The Origin of Species, Darwin presented his thought that species evolve

from more crude species through the procedure of natural choice, which

occurs spontaneously in nature. In his theory of how natural choice occurs,

known as Darwinism, he pointed out that non all persons of a species are

precisely the same. But, instead that persons have fluctuations and that some of

these fluctuations make their carriers better adapted to particular ecological

conditions. He pointed out that most species have more opportunities of surviving and

bring forthing immature than make less adapted, and that over the transition of clip, are

easy weeded out. The accretion of versions to a peculiar ecological

system leads into the development of separate species, each adapted to its ain

ecolgoical country.

In 1837, Darwin began work on the construct that development is basically

brought about by three rules. The first being fluctuation which is present

in all life signifiers. However, he did non try to specify it. The 2nd

rule is heredity, ? the conservative force which transmits similar organic

signifiers from one coevals to another ( 2:57 ) . ? Last, the battle for

being? determines which fluctuations will last in a given environment, therefore

changing life through a selective decease rate ( 2:57-58 ) . ? He concluded that with

all three factors combined that life will change easy and imperceptibly.

Herbert Spencer lived from 1820-1903. An English philosopher who

advocated the importance of the person over society and scientific discipline over

faith. He was born in Derby on April 27, 1820. He declined an offer to

attend Cambridge, and his higher instruction was a consequence of reading, particularly

about the natural scientific disciplines. In 1848, he became subeditor of the Economist. In

1851, he published Social Statistics, in which he argues in favour of an extreme

signifier of economic and societal laissez faire and proceeded to name advancement a

necessity. In 1860 Spencer went to work on The Synthetic Philosophy, a

combination work including psychological science, biological science, sociology, and morality.

Spencer began composing a series of plants called Descriptive Sociology in 1873

about the societal establishments of assorted societies.

However, he died before he could see this work published ( it was subsequently


blished posthumously ) .

One of the consequences of Darwin & # 8217 ; s work is that he demonstrated that the

development of workss and animate beings provides no grounds of godly creative activity. He

began to use development to morality and it evolved from improved societal

criterions ( 3:101 ) . As he grew older he abandoned his Christian positions and became


Unlike Darwin, Spencer & # 8217 ; s work and positions revolved around people and

societies. On the other manus, Darwin dealt more with workss and animate beings.

Spencer & # 8217 ; s work tried to unite sociology and societal doctrine, nevertheless,

Darwin & # 8217 ; s work was more biological. Spencer besides used metaphysics to turn out some

beliefs. He believed that acquired features can be passed on to

posterities. He did non believe that acquired features or endurance of the

fittest were the ultimate rules of development. He felt being able to make

a heterogenous society was the most cardinal rule.

Spencer combined a belief in the world of clip with a belief in the

eventual realization of every possible assortment of being. Believing in this

gave spiritual support to the broad rule of assortment. He besides believed in

the world of clip with a belief in the eventual realization of every

possible assortment.

Spencer was one of the first to confirm that human society may be studied

scientifically. He did so from an evolutionary point of position based on the

premise that human behaviour is socially determined. His evolutionary

theories were conceived before those of Darwin ( 1:15 ) .

Spencer, nevertheless, applied his general evolutionary strategy to human

society. He believed that societal development would be governed by a procedure of

increasing individualization. Human societies evolved from similar hosts by agencies

of increased divisions of labour, into complex civilisations. Crude work forces were

smaller, less intelligent and more emotional than civilized work forces. Harmonizing to

Spencer they became more intelligent by analyzing kids in civilised societies.

Religion is the consequence of shade psyches in dreams and worship was directed toward

the psyche of dead ascendants. This led Spencer to believe that civilised

faiths were more or less luxuriant fluctuations on this crude thought. The

major societal differentiation was between military societies and industrial societies.

In military societies, co-operation was gained through forced steps.

Whereas in industrial societies, cooperation was optional and self-generated.

Spencer besides made a comparing between carnal beings and human

societies. There is a regulatory system or the cardinal nervous system in an

being and authorities to societies. A sustaining system found in one,

industry in the other, and both shared distributing systems: venas and arterias

and roads and telegraphs. The major difference between the two is that

everything happens for one thing. while in society everyone acts as an

single and nil goes back to the whole.

Spencer & # 8217 ; s try to unite the scientific disciplines has ne’er been repeated. His

sociology, based on society, was taken over by societal anthropology and is more

concerned with supplying a principle for his societal ideals. For illustration,

crude work forces were non childly emotional animate beings as he thought them to be.

Darwin and Spencer made great promotions in the survey of development.

They became precursors in their Fieldss and the two most august scientists in

the survey of development. Their theories are still in being today and have

non been discounted. Spencer largely covering with society and Darwin with nature.

They both are celebrated for their theories of development, but their theories differ.

Darwin felt that development was gained through natural choice. However,

Spencer believed in endurance of the fittest in order to make a heterogenous

society. Both work forces & # 8217 ; s Hagiographas and theories became greatly controversial, but

greatly influenced hereafter scientists.

Plants Cited

1. Hudson, William Henry. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Herbert Spencer.

Haskell House Publishers: New York, 1974.

2. Huxley, Julian. Charles Darwin and His World. Viking Imperativeness: New York, 1965.

3. Skelton, Renee. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection.

Children & # 8217 ; s Press Choice: Chicago, 1987.