Yes, not-for-profit organisations need to bring forth net income in order to prolong their operation. First, we need to understand what is not-for-profit organisation and net income. Not-for-profit organisation is integrated organisations which operate for charitable, instruction or societal intents. It provided that the stockholder or legal guardians do non anticipate any refund and do non gain net income ( BusinessDictionary, 2012 ) . While the definition of net income is positive addition signifier concern operation or investing after deducts all the disbursals ( InvestorWords, 2012 ) .
Every not-for-profit organisation has their mission statement. Mission statement describes of some combination of organisation ‘s intended or ongoing activities and consequences that they hope to accomplish ( Leonard, 2006 ) . For illustration, the mission of University Tunku Abdul Rahman is ‘to be a prima university offering instruction of highest criterion in all important Fieldss aimed at to the full developing the person and better functioning the state ‘ and ‘committed to the promotion of cognition ‘ ( Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 2011 ) . They need to bring forth some net income in order to accomplish the mission. UTAR need capital to construct the edifice to supply a good acquisition environment and they need the installations and equipment for pupils. Furthermore, they besides need to pay for the public-service corporations and better or keep the installations and equipment. In brief, not-for-profit organisation demands to bring forth some money in order to go on operating. It is merely that in not-for-profit organisation, doing net income for the organisation is non the chief purpose.
Besides, not-profit organisation did non hold many full-time voluntary, in order to make the mission they need to engage some employees. To make the mission, they besides need to engage expertness employee for the occupation. The mission of Labour Union is to stand for their rank in negociating higher rewards riddance of favoritism in the workplace. They need to engage the employees who are expert in jurisprudence to make the mission. In the competitory occupation market, employees require the wages that are consentaneous to their degree of their expertness. Net income needed in not-for-profit organisation to prolong the monthly wages to engage employees.
Not-for net income organisation does non hold proprietors, it is operated by board of managers. They have board of managers meetings discuss and to O.K. activities. They can bring forth the net income by holding a fund elevation, contribution from public and fees paid by others.
In decision, a not-for net income organisation is established to function a figure of different charitable and non-charitable intent. A not-for net income organisation needs generate net income to specify the organisation ‘s mission. The intent of acquiring net income is to supply something value to general population. They need fiscal support to run the organisation and usage to pay the employee, public-service corporations and operation cost. Making net income is non their chief focal point but to prolong the operation of their organisation.
The Importance of Conceptual Framework for Accounting
Conceptual model of accounting is really of import because it facilitates harmonisation and helps in convergence of accounting ordinances. It can assist to better efficiency by prolonging common set of premises and ordinances with the convergence of accounting criterion ( Gore, 2007 ) . Besides, Conceptual model besides helps to take incompatibility. For illustration, it helps to forestall the statements of those basic constructs such as what is an plus, what is liability and so forth ( Williamson, 2002 ) . Hence, the convergence of accounting ordinances can assist to obtain consistent accounting statements. With the convergence of accounting criterion, it enhances the communicating between the standard compositors and its users ( Australian Accounting Standard Board, 2001 ) . Users can pass on with standard compositors expeditiously by utilizing conceptual model because of the same nomenclature used in the accounting criterions. Therefore, it can assist in discoursing accounting issues ( Williamson, 2002 ) .
Besides, conceptual model is of import because it helps the users or preparers of fiscal studies to understand every bit good as construe the information of fiscal statements deeply and detect its failings. Users use conceptual model as a mention to understand accounting statements as conceptual model contains regulations and ordinances of new rules are prepared. For illustration, with the aid of conceptual model, users will be able to cognize the accounting construct every bit good as the ordinances of accounting. Besides, hearers besides use conceptual model as a usher to look into mistakes every bit good as pupils use conceptual model to analyze accounting ( Williamson, 2002 ) . For case, hearer will follow the accounting regulations under conceptual model to review accounting statement. With conceptual model, people can farther understand fiscal statements easy.
Furthermore, conceptual model besides acts as a guideline or rule for development of future pattern of fiscal accounting criterions. Conceptual model carries out analysis, reading and accommodation of accounting constructs for future criterions. Besides, conceptual model consists of bing basic constructs which may assist in the development of future criterions. Accounting standard compositors can mention to the conceptual model which consists of basic constructs, rules of accounting to put the new criterion. This will assist them to salvage clip without making premises and ordinance of accounting. Hence, conceptual model Acts of the Apostless as the guideline for the development of future accounting criterions ( Accounting Standard Board of Japan, 2006 ) .
Furthermore, conceptual model helps to cover with dealing of accounting status and events when there is no accounting criterion yet. Peoples can cover with dealing of accounting by puting conceptual model as the guideline. This can assist to work out similar minutess or other accounting issues if people take conceptual model as a mention. This is because conceptual model contains basic constructs. So, preparers can cover with dealing and status of accounting based on the basic construct such as measuring of plus, liability and so forth. With this, preparers are able to do certain the ways they deal with minutess and conditions are applicable every bit good as effectual.
Conceptual model besides helps to heighten to credibleness of fiscal coverage ( Williamson, 2002 ) . This is because conceptual model provides waies to make fiscal statements and fiscal studies. It is more dependable if the preparers use conceptual model to fix fiscal statements because conceptual model is consistent. Hence, this will assist to cut down mistakes and increase the assurance of investors.
Conceptual model besides guide the direction of an organisation when they are making subjective judgement when the readying of fiscal statement. The direction of an organisation tends to follow their ain options to fix history if there is no conceptual model. With conceptual model, the direction of the organisation is forced to follow the conceptual model to fix history. This will assist to increase the consistence and lead to higher comparison of other organisations.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Regulating Accounting Information through Accounting Standard
With the ordinance of accounting information, the degree of separation between the proprietors and directors has been increased. Mangers or direction governments will responsibility with the operation of the company, so that proprietors do non necessitate being adept in that peculiar industry. The proprietors can concentrate on puting in other industries by giving the duty of the companies to the experts ( James, 2012 ) . At the same clip, ordinance of the accounting information through accounting criterion has brought out some advantages and disadvantages.
One of the advantages from modulating accounting information through accounting criterion is the investing hazard can be reduced. With the ordinance accounting information through accounting criterion, accounting experts can construe and compare the fiscal information easy which will assist the investors and companies to cut down the investing hazard when they are mentioning to the fiscal study ( Murphy, 2010 ) .
Besides, the modulating accounting information through accounting criterions can assist the transnational companies to make strong economic benefits. The accounting criterion could assist transnational companies to gain larger net incomes by affecting in stocks exchange around the universe when they adopted the accounting criterions which cause them to be eligible for naming ( Bolt-Lee, 2009 ) . This will assist the companies in affecting spread outing concern with increasing net incomes.
Furthermore, the regulation of the accounting information through accounting criterion besides could assist the transnational companies to better the dependability of fiscal statement. This will ease the experts or comptrollers to carry through the fiscal study with the restorative guidelines which can forestall the companies from doing fiscal mistakes. The dependability of the fiscal statement besides can heighten the transparence in order to beef up investors ‘ assurance every bit good as increase the market place of the adoptive parents.
Accounting information through accounting criterion is besides of import to move as analyzing tool. With the standardized information, those transnational companies able to analyze their companies and rivals ‘ public presentation through accounting studies ( Shanker ) . With this, they can run a concern, program in front and do alterations when the companies concern is non run as expected ( Shanker ) . With the clear accounting information besides help the companies to do wise determination in spread outing concerns or investings.
Everything has its pro and con, this same goes to the ordinance of fiscal information. The disadvantage of the fiscal information through accounting criterion is the criterion will do load to the little concern. This is because the accounting criterion cost is high for the little concern due to the integrating of accounting criterion. These costs are the burden that could harm the little companies from spread outing or turn ( Houston ) .
In add-on, another disadvantage of the regulation information through accounting criterion is inflexible model. Due to different unstructured jobs might happen, yet the accounting criterion had been set with the hole model, this will do the comptrollers unable to battle with the unstructured job efficaciously and expeditiously. Therefore, the comptrollers merely able to put the alone experiences as a new guideline of the criterion after the jobs have been solved ( McIntosh ) .
In short, the regulation of the accounting information through accounting criterion will cut down investing hazards, create strong economic benefits, bettering dependability of fiscal statement and act as analysing tools. The impudent side of the modulating accounting information is it will burthen to the little concern and inflexible model. From the overall, the regulation of accounting information through accounting criterion is supplying more advantages than disadvantage.
The Merit and Shortcomings of the Historical Cost Accounting Concept
The issue of historical cost accounting construct versus current cost accounting construct is a hot subject that has been debated over old ages. Both of these accounting constructs bring advantages and disadvantages.
There are several virtues of historical cost accounting construct can be listed. First, the virtue of utilizing historical cost accounting construct is that it able to assist the directors in doing economic determinations ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . Manager could anticipate future operational costs based on past informations. Historical cost informations enables directors to analyse based on past informations and satisfice for good adequate solution as they are limited in their ability to analyse all possible options. Historical cost is used because it tells the cost of a thing and how much has been earned in the determination shaper ‘s environment ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) .
Next, the benefit of utilizing historical cost is that it avoids directors from pull stringsing the figures to be recorded ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . It is accountant ‘s duties to guard the unity of the accounting informations against internal alterations ( Thompson, 2007 ) . In historical cost accounting construct, the information is recorded based on existent minutess with supported by grounds such as bills and grosss. Hence, every dealing is recorded objectively and at acquisition monetary value.
Furthermore, historical cost is utile for control intents as the stewardship of direction is seems involved in the aim of accounting ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . Historical cost is recorded based on existent minutess, therefore the figures recorded are dependable. Directors can mention to the income statement to find how effectual a direction has met its duties and its degree of public presentation ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) .
However, historical cost besides has several restrictions. Historical cost which chiefly consider the acquisition cost of an plus ignores the fact that directors are non merely interested in the cost allotments and how much have been earned. A director besides interested in additions and lessenings of the value of their investings in current market ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . Hence, it provides deficient information for the rating of concern determination.
Furthermore, historical cost is sometimes deceptive as it flaws in times of rising prices ( Thompson, 2007 ) . The cogency of historical cost failed to vouch the quality of justness when the transaction-oriented comptrollers were more interested in look intoing past informations instead than current physical world ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . In add-on, the consequence of rising prices may non be the same for every organisation and doing historical cost construct mislead when it is used to compare corporate public presentation ( Thompson, 2007 ) .
Undeniably, current cost accounting construct carries advantage excessively. Current cost able to show better world of economic minutess which provide sufficient information for economic determination devising as compared to historical cost ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . Current cost accounting construct able to accommodate to rapid altering concern environment, hence it is believed that it reflects a better step of efficiency of a company. Although current cost provides more relevant information but the market value of fiscal statement may be less dependable as it does non trust on groundss ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) .
Besides, by utilizing current cost accounting will open the door for others to pull strings the figures as it is non based on existent minutess ( Thompson, 2007 ) . Current cost accounting will be excessively subjective as it would be recorded depends on single point of position and capable to different people ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) .
In add-on, current cost accounting is found that it is merely utile for doing short term portfolio determinations ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) . Historical information seems able to drive the force behind long term return instead than current cost accounting. This is because historical informations provide dependable grounds for the alteration in dividends from the past until current timeline ( Bakar & A ; Said, 2007 ) .
As a decision, it is seems that historical cost accounting construct are more practical in world. Accounting house still continues utilizing the blemished historical cost construct as there is no other better replacing ( Thompson, 2007 ) .