Enzymes are biological accelerators. They speed up chemical reactions in all living things, and let them to happen more easy. Enzymes are chemical molecules, made up of ball-shaped proteins. Each peculiar enzyme has a alone, three-dimensional form made up of a third construction that is made from the distortion and folding of the polypeptide spiral, which contains both the alpha spiral and the beta pleated sheet. Enzymes are besides biological accelerators ; they differ from inorganic accelerators in that they catalyse merely one reaction. A little part on the enzyme, called the active site, has a form that fits with specific substrate molecules. The active site is where the binding occurs. The forms of the active site, and the places of the chemical groups and bonds within it, guarantee that merely those substrate molecules with a complementary construction will unite with the enzyme. ( 1 ) ( 6 )
The enzyme alkaline phosphatise is of import in the reuse of phosphate within life cells. Alkaline phosphate catalyzes the spilt of a phosphate group from assortments of compounds such as the substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate which the substrate is colorless. Conversely, one of the merchandise, p-nitrophenol is xanthous in basic solutions. The xanthous coloring material indicates the point to which the substrate has been acted upon by the enzyme ( 2 )
Table 1: Table demoing the speeds of the reaction at different p-nitrophenyl phosphate concentrations
Absorbance ( 405 nanometer )
Concentration of p-nitrophenyl phosphate
Time ( sec )
This tabular array is demoing the speeds of the reaction at the following p-nitrophenyl phosphate concentrations: – 0.5mM,0.8mM,1.0mM,2.0mM,5mM,10mM.
Table 2 A table demoing the reciprocal of optical density alteration per minute and substrate concentration
Concentration ( millimeter ) of p-nitrophenyl phosphate ( S )
Absorbance alteration /min
( V )
A tabular array demoing the category information of the rates that were determined. This information will used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk graph to gauge the Km and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl phosphate.
Figure 2. Graph demoing the category information of concentration against optical density change/min
This graph is demoing a curve but Km and Vmax points can non be determined, to gauge Km and Vmax a lineweaver-burk graph demands to be plotted in the mutual signifier.
Table 3: A tabular array demoing the reciprocal of optical density alteration per minute and substrate concentration
1/S ( substrate concentration ) units?
1/V ( Velocity ) units?
Consequences from this tabular array will be used to plot a lineweaver-burk graph to gauge Km and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl phosphate.
Table 4: Table demoing the intercepts obtained from the lineweaver-burk graph
Value at the intercept of the X-axis ( 1/S )
Value at the intercept of the Y axis ( 1/V )
Table 5: Table demoing the values of Km and Vmax
Km Value ( millimeter )
Vmax µmol min-1
Km value was determined utilizing -1/Km because both values are in mM the value remains same.
-1/Km = -1/-0.2=5mM
Vmax value was determined utilizing 1/Vmax
To find the value of Vmax the undermentioned stairss were taken:
-converting the value of the optical density change/min utilizing Beer L jurisprudence.
M-1cm-1A/EL=C abs/min-1/EL centimeter
2.5-10-7 — 106=0.25µmol min-1
Figure 3 shows that an Increase in the concentration of substrate additions the rate at which merchandise is formed, up to a maximal value. From this point the enzyme molecule is soaked with the substrate and the rate of reaction ( Vmax ) depends on how fast the enzyme can treat the substrate molecule. Km, the concentration of substrate allows the reaction to continue at one-half its maximal rate ( 0.5Vmax ) . Consequences from figure 3 show a low Km value demoing that the enzyme reaches its maximal addition in rate at a low concentration of substrate and indicates that the enzyme binds to its substrate really tightly. This is backed up with the value taken from the Brenda enzyme database. The value from Brenda enzyme shows km value to be 0.056 compared to the value from experiment 0.25 shows both are a low kilometer value. ( 3 ) ( 5 )
Ploting the reciprocal of optical density alteration per minute and substrate concentration produces a Lineweaver Burk secret plan. This provides a more accurate manner to find Vmax and Km.
Vmax is determined where the line crosses the 0 axis.
Km peers Vmax times the incline of line and is determined from the intercept on the X axis.
The lineweaver Burk secret plan gives a more accurate estimation of Vmax and is utile in analysing enzyme suppression. The lineweaver secret plan shows as the substrate concentration decreases the rate besides decreases this is because at low substrate concentrations the active sites on the enzymes are non soaked by the substrate doing the enzymes to non work at maximum capacity.
Figure 2 shows as the concentration of the substrate increases more enzymes are working. When it reaches the point when saturated, no more active sites are available for substrate binding ; at this point, the enzyme reaches its maximal speed ( Vmax ) . As the substrate concentration addition above this point the Vmax occurs as the enzyme is soaked with the substrate. This relationship is described as a inflated curve. ( 3 )