Ethnographic Summary Of Japan Essay Research Paper

Ethnographic Summary Of Japan Essay, Research Paper

The thousand of old ages of happy reign be thine:

-Japanese National Anthem

It has been more than 1300 old ages since they started to name their state Nihon or Nippon, modern-day Nipponese manner to state Japan ( Kodansha 1996: 54-55 ) . After the long history that consists of the periods of privacy and assimilation, Japan has grown into one of the most developed states in the universe. Many people all over the universe nowadays know the state, and utilize their merchandises in many occasions. However, because of their alone national character and their rapid growing, it is besides true that so many stereotypes about Japan and the Nipponese exist. In this article of Nipponese ethnographic sum-up, non all, but general present status of Japan is described in seven separate classs: location, geographic resources, exchange system, subsistence patterns, political constructions, faith, and affinity construction and other societal organisations. This may be a good chance for you to cognize a small spot about recent Japan, instead than Sushi, Samurai and Toyota.

Location

Japan is an island state surrounded by the sea on all sides. It is located across from really east portion of Asiatic continent with the Sea of Japan between, and really west-end portion of Pacific Ocean.

Nipponese jurisprudence established the standard location of Japan on the universe map to be 139.44 degree east longitude and 35.39 degree north latitude ( Kokudo 1999: Electric Document ) . To be exact, the state lays between 153.59 and 122.55 grade east longitude and between 20.25 and 45.33 degree north latitude ( The direction and Coordination Agency 2000: Electric Document ) . To call a few, New York, San Francisco, Seoul, and Paris are situated on the same latitude as Japan.

Geographic Resources

Japan is an island state, but is non a individual island: It consists of about 6,800 islands including some inhabited islands ( Kodansha 1996: 35 ) .

Besides an island state, Japan can besides be described as a cragged state. Codansha International ( 1996: 34-41 ) states 67 per centum of Nipponese full land surface is covered by mountains and merely 13 per centum is fields. From these mountains, so many rivers run all over the state, swerving vales and gorges, and supplying assorted graphical alterations of the land. There are many lakes, excessively.

Under such conditions, the chief agricultural resources in Japan are grains like rice and wheat, veggies like murphy, Nipponese white radish? @ ( radish ) , chou, onion, Cucumis sativus, tomato, and carrot, and fruits like Nipponese orange ( mikan ) , apple, Citrullus vulgaris, and Nipponese equal ( nashi ) ( Noma 1993: 17 ) . In add-on, so many sorts of animate beings like mammals, reptilians, fishes, birds and insects can be found in Japan ( Noma 1993: 38-39 ) .

Exchange System ( Imports and exports )

Although there are such geographic resources mentioned supra, because Japan is a really little state with a immense population, a big portion of its land that one time had been farmland became land for lodging. As a consequence, Nipponese people must depend on imported nutrient and other resources like fuel from other states. Nipponese import and export conditions are shown in Table 1 and 2: the research done by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry ( Kodansha 1996: 116-119 ) . The per centum shows the ratio of imports/exports to the sum of production.

Table 1: Degree of Dependence on Imports

Iron Ore 100 %

Nickel 100 %

Copper Ore 99.7 %

Crude Oil 99.6 %

Flour 90.1 %

Salt 84.5 %

LPG 76.8 %

Lumber 75.4 %

( MITI White Paper 1993 )

Table 2: Degree of Dependence on Exports

Watches & A ; Clocks 85.7 %

Vessels 82.9 %

Cameras 81.6 %

VCRs 72.9 %

Machine Tools 50.1 %

Cars 46.0 %

Man-made Fiber 46.0 %

**** ***

( MITI White Paper 1994 )

Subsistence Practices

1 ) Technology

Because Japan is one of the advanced states like the United States, their engineering is rather same as this state? degree Fahrenheit. However, because of their inclination to hold methodical personalities, their technological devices are frequently admired to be more luxuriant and more exact.

2 ) Clothing

Although they have their ain cultural apparels such as kimono, ? ha one-piece, front-open, wide-sleeved frock which reaches the mortise joints? H ( Hasegawa et al. 1986: 403 ) , in their day-to-day lives they wear western apparels. They wear their traditional apparels like Kimono in the particular occasions: New Year? degree Fahrenheit twenty-four hours, Coming-of-Age Day, marrying ceremonials, and graduation ceremonials. They besides have some casual-traditional apparels like Yukata, made of cotton, which some of them wear as pyjama ( Kodansha 1996: 224-227 ) . Yukata is besides celebrated to be worn at summer festival in Japan.

3 ) Food

Nipponese people like to eat assorted sorts of nutrient from all over the universe, from Western nutrient to Asian nutrient to Nipponese nutrient. So, there are a clump of eating houses in each town so that they can ever hold picks of what to eat for the twenty-four hours. Rice is considered to be typical and traditional diet of Nipponese. However, the sum of rice ingestion has somewhat decreased for these few decennaries ( See Table 3 ) ( Kodansha 1996: 228-229 ) .

Table 3.Table of Food Supply Demand

1960 1980 1993

Rice 314.9 gms 216.3 gms 189.7 gms

( The Ministry of Agriculture 1993 )

It is of import to understand that this dietetic alteration does non connote that they have come to dislike eating rice, but today they have more options to eat, like staff of lifes and noodles. For a farther mention, in 2000, I have conducted a little study about recent Nipponese people? fs penchant on eating rice or eating staff of life. Through electronic mail, I asked 35 Nipponese abodes whether they like to eat either rice or staff of life at breakfast and dinner, and besides to inquire this inquiry to people around them. Out of 35, 18 replied with 74 replies from people all over Japan of a broad age scope. The consequence is that in the forenoon 25 people preferable holding staff of life while 46 people preferable rice ( of the 74, three do non eat breakfast ) . The consequence for dinner was that 73 people preferable eating rice instead than bread, but merely one individual, who said he did non like rice. For the possible ground, some say that staff of life would non do their pore

ch experience full and would non supply them with adequate energy. It? fs merely because, unlike Western civilization, some Nipponese eat staff of life non as a portion of the repast but as the repast itself. Harmonizing to my research, hence, it seems that Nipponese still have strong fond regard to eating rice.

4 ) Bedrooms

Traditional Nipponese sleeping rooms have futons that are spread over tatami-matted floor ( ? gtatami are six by three pess straw mats widely used as flooring in Japan? H { Hasegawa et Al. 1996: 968 } ) . Right after they wake up in the forenoon, futons are put into the cupboard, and at dark they spread out once more on the tatami floor. Harmonizing to Kodansha ( 1996: 240-241 ) , a study conducted by a bed maker in 1994 showed consequences that approximately one out of four people sleeps on a bed. I have besides conducted a study on either bed-sleep or futon-sleep, in 2000, inquiring the same people I used in the research about rice and staff of life. The consequence is that out of 116 people, 74 slumber on beds and 42 on futons. Therefore, it seems that beds are coming into wider usage in Nipponese civilization. ? @ ? @ ? @

5 ) Toilet

There is a traditional lavatory manner in Japan. Compared with Western manner lavatory which can be described as sitting manner lavatory, the Nipponese manner can be described as a squatting manner. It is shaped like a large slipper and they squat over it for elimination. However, because of its convenience and smaller needed infinite, sitting manner lavatories have replaced most of the knee bend manner since it was introduced to Japan around 1870 ( Kodansha 1996: 240 ) .

Political Structures

Nipponese parliament system is called the? eDiet? degree Fahrenheit, and there are two houses in it: the House of Representative and the House of Councilor ( Kodansha 1996: 102-103, Noma 1993: 1213-1216 ) . Harmonizing to the information from Nikkei Research ( 2000: Electric Document ) , the diet? fs four most supported parties in 1999-2000 are ( in order of most to least support ) The Liberal Democratic Party, so The Democratic Party of Japan, The Japanese Communist Party, and The Social Democratic Party.

Religion in Modern Japan

Harmonizing to Kodansha International ( 1996: 180-191 ) , numerically, most faiths that are believed or followed by the Nipponese people are Shintoism, Buddhism, and Christianity, severally. However, many people considered to be Shintoists or Buddhists say that they have no faith, but they belong to it because of their household. Therefore, their religion is frequently non the ground behind their belonging to a certain faith. In Japan, it is non unusual that people without spiritual belief usage spiritual topographic points for particular occasions such as matrimonies and funerals, and many spiritual events are practiced as a societal events, without religion. Many people cerebrate Christmas and, after few yearss, go to shrines to idolize at New Year? degree Fahrenheit Day, and Santa Claus comes to houses that deify shrines.

Kinship Structure and Their Value on Other Social Organizations

Nipponese affinity construction is rather similar to what is understood as affinity construction in the United States. Nipponese affinity system is based on bilateral form, and a little difference is that both father? degree Fahrenheit and female parent? degree Fahrenheit sides are called by and referred to the same footings without? gin jurisprudence? H ( Noma 1993: 787 ) . Another striking difference from American classs is that Nipponese distinguish the footings for siblings by dividing older and younger: ani for older brother, otouto for younger brother, ane for older sister, and imouto for younger sister ( Noma 1993: 787 ) .

It is said that Nipponese people? fs perceptual experience about the unit of societal organisation fundamentally lies in Internet Explorer, which originally means a house but, in this manner, is used for any groups that bind people together, like households, schools, plants, and faiths ( Kodansha 1996: 146-147, Noma 1993: 787-788 ) . It indicates the Nipponese inclination, unlike western civilization? degree Fahrenheit, to set value on groups instead than on persons. Because of this, there are two opposite ways to show? gself? H which Nipponese people frequently differentiate in usage: honne and tatemae. Honne is translated as? greal purpose? H, and tatemae as? genunciated rule? H ( Hasegawa 1986: 975,1527 ) . Nipponese are sometimes criticized for non showing their existent purpose and for holding these two criterions ; nevertheless, for them who give their precedence to groups, this distinction is frequently necessary to keep order and is frequently considered non merely for their endurance in the group, but as contemplation for others.

In my research mentioned earlier in the subdivision of subsistence patterns, I besides asked people about their perceptual experience of honne and tatemae. As the consequence, out of 40 replies, about two-thirds said? eI usage tatemae but think honne is of import? degree Fahrenheit, so half of the remainder said? eI use both and believe it is a right thing to make? f. Whether positively or negatively, most of them think tatemae is of import to keep good relationships with people in their society, particularly at workshops where frequently typical Nipponese perpendicular society is represented. Yet many of the responses were that they did non desire to utilize tatemae if they did non hold to.

Decision

Everything stated in this sum-up of Japan is a concise overall position of present Nipponese status and their inclinations. When you read this study, it is really of import to understand that things like civilization, in general, alter as clip goes by and hold several facets depending on the context: besides, there is ever exclusions. While maintaining it in head, if you try to understand modern-day Japan and its civilization, I predict that the information in this study will assist you to take a good measure to make it.

Hasegawa, kiyoshi. Momozawa, Tsutomu. Horiuchi, Katsuaki. and

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Nikkei Research

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