Man does non populate by bread alone is a really popular stating uttered by one of the greatest work forces who of all time walk this planet. And there is much truth to that. Thus adult male. after working hard in the Fieldss and whatever profession he is engage into. will experience non much satisfaction and there is that continued yearning for something else losing in his life. It is at this point that adult male desire for other things besides the familiar chorus of nutrient. shelter. and vesture.
There are those who say that the chase for the finer things in life takes the border off life and so from the clip adult male learns to voyage his manner across waies that connect one folk to another. trade began. And one of those being traded in ancient times is something related to man’s basic demand – vesture or fabric. In the Middle Ages. Iran’s fabric industry reached its aureate age under the counsel of the Safavid dynasty. This paper will take a closer expression at the fabric industry in Persia between the early sixteenth century and after the death of the Safavid Dyansty in the early portion of the eighteenth century.
In this of import period of its history the advocate of this survey will analyze different facets of trade. the techniques used in doing fabric. and the important designs that made Persia as a really of import trading hub during these old ages. This paper will besides analyze the function that the fabric industry played in the economic wealth of Iran. Background There is that certain quality and appeal to richness. It is hence easy to understand why everybody wanted to be rich and no 1 would wish to merchandise topographic points with a hapless adult male.
Human nature seeks for comfort as the organic structure craves for H2O in the searing heat of the desert Sun. This is human nature and it best explains why merchandisers from the East and West in the Middle Ages continue to weather foul conditions status and other jeopardies associated to merchandise so long as the exchange of goods and money take topographic point. But when a individual reaches a degree of domestic comfort. there is that inclination to go more sophisticated.
The desire for luxury points boots in and the comfortable frequenters of all right luxury merchandises will drive their adventuresome merchandisers even to the terminals of the Earth to get what is needed or more suitably. to acquire things that are non basic demands but will certainly make full a craving for the alien and for the expensive. In the Middle Ages the Westerners expression to the East for points related to a basic demand. the demand for vesture and these came in the signifier expensive fabrics and for those who can afford it silk will make merely ticket.
There is besides the desire for all right Iranian carpet or what is besides known as rugs. Culture In the Middle Ages. there are two major positions in the quest to understand historic fabrics. The first one can be seen through the eyes of those who inhabit the Eastern half of the Earth. The 2nd can be seen through the eyes of those populating in the Western half of the planet. The difference in clime and topography allows for the exchange of goods and cherished points. each group needs the other to get what they all wanted.
For the Easterners life between the periods of the sixteenth century up to the eighteenth century. historic fabrics of great historic significance are those that are coming from the parts around Asia. The Chinese. Indians. Turks and Iranian brand this all go on. The historic fabrics are used for mundane intent in this portion of the universe as apparels. accoutrements for adult male and animate beings and of class as a major family point to take away the obtuseness of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours populating. These merchandises are besides seen as major exports for those who live on the other side.
For the Westerners life in the Middle Ages. the said historic fabrics that include silk brocades and all right Iranian rugs are a beginning of pride and joy. For them these fabric merchandises are keen plants of art. If people from Persia used the rougher fabric from wool in order to bring forth rugs – for the intent of utilizing the same as carpets – the Westerners will ne’er hold to let such expensive points to be trampled by dirty places. And so for the Europeans. rugs and all right fabric are hung on wall and some used to cover expensive furniture.
Safavid Dynasty It is understood that things does non come out from nil. There is an account for the Golden Age of the Persian fabric industry and it can be explained in one thought – the Safavid dynasty. An overview of this Iranian dynasty will non merely explicate the beginning of the much sought after luxury points but it will besides assist border the context as to how the industry was developed from its crude signifier into something that impacted the universe in the Middle Ages.
But it is non besides right to give all the recognition to the Safavids in footings of the creative activity of all right Persian rugs and the all right silk cloths. It must be mentioned that a few centuries earlier it was the Sassanians who laid the foundation for the fabric industry. This led Roger Savory to note that. “Although the devising of rugs is of ancient birthplace in Iran. it was the Safavids who elevated a cottage-industry to an activity on a national graduated table and one which formed an of import portion of the economy” ( 1980 ) .
But the Sassanians limited success strengthens the statement that it takes more than endowment and accomplishment to last in the dog-eat-dog universe of ancient trade. it requires a great leader to set-up a system that will authorise the people and encouraged those who have the entrepreneurial spirit to venture into the unknown or merely better on what they have and in this instance it is the ability to do beautiful cloths. The blossoming of Iran’s Golden Age through the able leading of Shah Abbas I was made possible by the feats of Abbas ascendant Ismail Safavi in 1501 who made the strategically located Tabriz as the capital of his freshly formed province.
Ismail brought peace and order while Abbas provided the leading understanding that would show in a period of political and military reform every bit good as of cultural blossoming ( Yalman. 2002 ) . In the latter portion of the sixteenth century Shah Abbas transferred the capital to Isfahan. During this clip rugs and fabrics became of import export points. These merchandises were non merely used by the nobility and ordinary people. the same were used to fuel the economic system.
Harmonizing to savory the first rug mill was established in Isfahan and Yalman concurs by stating that these were produced in workshops set up under province backing in Isfahan and other metropoliss ( 2002 ) . Historic Textiles As mentioned earlier the beginning of the brilliant Iranian rugs can be traced to a bungalow industry that started a few centuries before the Safavids. Roger Savory provided more inside informations when he wrote: The beginnings of the Iranian rug industry as we know it today is the tribal carpet. adult females by the adult females and kids of the semi-nomadic folk. utilizing the wool from their ain flocks and natural dyes.
The tribal carpets were normally in bright. homosexual colourss. with bold reasonably simple designs. They were and are extremely individualistic. often irregular in form. and characterized by colour alterations in the wool caused by the usage of different dye batches ( 1980 ) . Aside from the finely designed but tougher looking rugs the Persians are in ownership of all right cloths and are largely made of silk. Rudolph Matthee even asserted that non merely was Iran a centre for fabricating silk cloths but the part is besides a manufacturer of natural silk ( 1999 ) . The undermentioned lists the three sorts of satiny Safavid pieces of fabric: 1.
Simple all right silk ; 2. Brocade or gold silk ; and 3. Silken velvet. Technology Harmonizing to Carol Bier it is about impossible to acquire a elaborate and proficient description of the elaboratenesss of the Persian fabric industry. First of all this is due to the job of the stuffs itself. the cloths are intelligibly delicate and did non last the depredations of clip. The few that remains are even far removed from the Safavid Dynasty. Historians are even forced to utilize the surviving pictures made by creative persons of the Middle Ages to acquire an a more in-depth apprehension of Iran’s Golden Age in fabric fabrication and export industry.
But it does non necessitate a projectile scientist to understand that these creative persons can do changes and can infix their ain readings doing their graphics a less dependable beginning of historical facts. As a consequence of these troubles. Bier concluded that: The procedure of drawloom weaving and its engineering is non exhaustively understood or documented for these periods. Treatises have yet to be located for fuller certification of the usage of dyes and for the procedures of commercial weaving. every bit good as for the industry or embroidery of fabrics by other agencies ( e. g.
embellishment. applique. crocheting. knitting. felt-making. accessorization ) … . of invention. betterments. or other alterations in the engineering or its application that may hold had an consequence upon fabric design and patterning ( 2008 ) . In the same vein Milton Sonday concurs by stating that. “All excessively frequently what survives of a historic cloth is a fragment that is excessively little to give an feeling of what the original looked like. Fragments must. therefore. if possible. be placed within the context of either uninterrupted form from one or more fragments. provided one understands the rule upon which such forms were laid out.
Weaving Patterns Even with the scarceness of resources from which historiographers can pull decisions. the undermentioned addresses the few important facts that can be gleaned from artefacts and other paperss that shed visible radiation on the said capable affair. Equally far as forms and designs go. it is Milton Sonday that provided the most aid. In the words of Sonday. “The highest accomplishments of Safavid silk interior decorators and weavers are preserved in a limited figure of figured velvet and “lampas” weaves.
Aside from their deluxe surfaces and monumental forms. they are ideal for the penetrations they provide for understanding engineering and aesthetics” ( 2008 ) . This decision is portion of the a general thought that it is notoriously hard to distinguish what is unambiguously Safavid historic fabric as opposed to those coming from other historic fabric centres from the Middle East. In fact there is disagreement as to which brocaded field weave. brocaded satin weaves. float-patterned satin weaves. dual fabrics and the assorted metal background genuinely belongs to the Safavid and non to the Mughals of India.
And so it is best to concentrate on the figured velvet and the “lampas” weaves to cognize more about Safavid historic fabrics. Sonday pointed out that for the Iranian cloths of this epoch there can be two traditional forms. The first 1 is a uninterrupted form with elements of their composing arranged to be repeated infinitely and in all waies. The 2nd major form is called the pictural form with elements of its composing is arranged in such a manner that it is contained within and related to a top. underside. and sides ( Sonday. 2008 ) .
The repetition forms is achieved utilizing a squared unit in weaving. where its sides are parallel with warps and its top and bottom analogue with woofs. Finally. Sonday made another of import find. “A important characteristic of Safavid uninterrupted forms in “lampas” and velvet weaves is the usage of the human figure and narrative capable affair. Motifs are distinguished by lucidity of pulling and can be identified as Safavid by the manner of motives such as birds. foliages. trees. flowers. No individual motive is excessively highlighted in their uninterrupted forms and there are practically no unfastened spaces” ( 2008 ) .
There in a nutshell one gets the thought of a authoritative Safavid design. Decision It is a admiration to larn of ancient trading systems. It is besides an escapade live overing the yesteryear when merchandisers had to be more than business communities but has to hold that adventuresome spirit every bit good to acquire the best for their demanding patronage. For the gold and Ag enriched Europeans there is a desire. in fact a craving for the alien Middle East merchandises and foremost in their list are all right Iranian rugs and keen silk cloths.
Iran. the present twenty-four hours name for ancient Persia succeeded in going a centre for historic fabric trade in the Middle Ages because of the work of the Safavid dynasty peculiarly their greatest leader Shah Abbas. But there is more to Persian rug and Persial silk brocades aside from the wise direction of Abbas. It can be understood by following the development of their techniques and design from ancient times and of class the accomplishment and finding of their adult females and skilled workers who continued to happen ways of bettering their trade.
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New York: Cambridge University. Sonday. M. ( 2008 ) . “Patterns and Weaves: Safavid Lampas and Velvet. In TextileAsArt. com. Retrieved April 11. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. textileasart. com/index2. hypertext markup language. TextileAsArt. com. ( 2008 ) . “Antique Textiles. Woven Treasures. Retrieved April 11. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. textileasart. com/index2. hypertext markup language. Yalman. S. ( October 2002 ) . “The Art of the Safavids before 1600 “ . In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved April 11. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/safa/hd_safa. htm.