Intravenous urogram or IVU is better known as one of many trials X raies to help in bring forthing an anatomic construction and processes that occur in normal human urinary system with the aid of contrast medium injection through the nerves.A This is normally called endovenous pyelogram ( IVP ) .
– Intravenous urography is an x-ray trial in which the excretory system will be reviewed by the liquid method and system of IVU ( endovenous urography ) for diagnostic intents.
-From a assortment of other ways to acquire the image of the excretory system, the injection of endovenous contrast agent into the traditionally is considered the best and safe way.IVU kidneys to egest fluid into the piss ( the piss ) .A Ten beams can bring forth an image of each construction in through the piss ( the piss ) .
This process are many fluctuations and names.
O endovenous Pyelography
O Antegrade Pyelography separate this process from “ retograde pyelography ” in which fluid is injected into the bottom terminal of the system, so will the procedure of reversal of the drainage of piss or “ retograde. “ A Retograde pyelography is one of the best ways to observe jobs that occur at the underside of the system and it is the lone manner to bring forth images utilizing x-rays if there is any job in the kidney or kidneys can non work decently.
O Nephrotomography a difference in the manner of taking images where the image is obtained through x-rays beginnings are invariably traveling into the movie that is invariably traveling in opposite waies. With the exact co-ordinates of the motion, to all but one plane of tissue surfaces that appear blurred, and the plane will look after another without a shadow.
Each of the bing methods to bring forth high quality images excretory system, the inquiry is which method is most suitable.A Every different state of affairs or a state of affairs necessitating particular demands, while each technique has its ain forte.
O atomic review depends on the radiations emitted by several types of specific atoms.A Chemicals that contain atoms to be injected into the patient ‘s bloodstream.A If the chemical is able to go to to the kidney, where the resulting image quality depends on the sum of radiation released.A Radiation is non unsafe as x-rays normally used.A Images that require intensive preparation is of import so that images can be reviewed and discussed this, they frequently provide a unique and utile information to assist handle patients.A Thus, the engineering is frequently used to analyze unnatural events in the excretory system.A Different chemicals that are able to join forces with radiation to analyze the different tissues.A The technique requires several yearss for the chemicals react and focus on the desired destination.A It besides requires a particular sensor to bring forth an image.
O ultrasound or supersonic moving ridge is the fastest method, a safe, simple and cheap manner to get images of internal organs.A Although it is non to make an image of each organ of position more clearly, it may be sufficient.
O retrograde pyelography is manner better and more effectual to analyze the jobs or any unnatural activity that occurs at the underside of the system and is the lone manner to carry on X raies if the kidneys can non work normally.A Often the liquid will be injected through the equipment ( cytoscope ) penetrate into the vesica through uretera.
O Computed imaging scans ( CT or CAT scanning ) is an scrutiny utilizing the same type of radiation used in ten beam scrutinies, the difference is that the machine collects the information through the computing machine in a signifier that can be built as 3-dimensional images, take or preventA image intervention from next structures.CT scrutiny requires particular equipment.
O Magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) is analyzing the usage of magnetic moving ridges and wireless frequence signals, instead than utilizing the ionised radiation to bring forth images of the computer.A Forms of energy like this is wholly safe signifier of energy used while the patient does non transport or possess any object oriented pure Fe during the inspection.The technique should be used in this scrutiny is more when compared with CT.MRI requires specialised equipment, being powerful magnet is needed, a particular edifice to be built for this examination.A And it takes a high cost.
Procedures for endovenous Urogram
A§ Patients experience hurting in the kidneys ( the renal )
A§ kidney infection repeating
A§ urinary piece of land diseases ( piss )
A§ For patients taking metaformin
A§ hepato nephritic syndrome
Emptying the contents ( fecal matters ) in the bowel utilizing a laxative or clyster to avoid the shadow of fecal daraipada anatomical constructions prevent urinary piece of land system.A An empty tummy to avoid the complications patients frequently spit, puke, rare effects caused by contrast agents.A Thus, the dark before the IVP ( endovenous pyelogram ) patients asked to empty the contents of the tummy, do non eat dairy merchandises and are advised to imbibe tonss of H2O cooking.A Here is the sequence of patient readying before the scrutiny.
A§ Preparation am a patient, the patient will be given laxative ( laxative ) within 24 hours prior to review, to guarantee the volume kumuhan to the full excreted.
A§ The patient will take a laxative the unwritten ( by oral cavity ) 2-6 hours before the scrutiny.
A§ Patients are advised to plentifulness of tallies because in this manner can cut down the sum of air into the tummy.
A§ Adaptation of patient readying is required for certain patient groups contahnya-children, people with diabetes and predisposes patients to wellness controls, in line with current jabtan action.
aˆ? Treatment to quiet the patient through psychological
aˆ? The needle lesion cleaned and checked the extravasasi
aˆ? Check whether the patient understands the processs to be performed.
aˆ? Make certain the patient understands any readying instructions and when finished.
aˆ? accompanied by a transcript of the patient into the room.
RADIATION CENTER ( CENTRAL RAY )
Movies for the control of abdominal
aˆ? Radiation Centre should be accurate and are in the unsloped place ( right in the center of the line L3 of the border kostal.
aˆ? Make certain that the place required to be right in the in-between country to do certain the top expressions and nephritic simfisis pubic bone is besides apparent in the image
aˆ? The procedure performed while patients hold their breath after being given waies by an X ray.
Film nephritic subdivisions
aˆ? Centre should be in the direct beams of the centre line at a center of the Ats and below the nephritic terminal.
aˆ? Exposure is made on the patients hold their breath on the way of x-ray translators.
aˆ? Central beam angled 15 grades downward and centered on the centre line bpada simfisis the pubic bone and ASIS
Protection from radiation.
aˆ? Use the sex gland shield made of lead stuffs, protection of Kings Lyn or ‘half apron ‘ when necessary.
Here are the stairss IVU scrutiny
The type of movie IVU
aˆ? Film prelimenari
aˆ? Film immediate
aˆ? Film 5 proceedingss
aˆ? Film 10 proceedingss
aˆ? Film Release
aˆ? Film postmicturation
Size of the movie – which is used 35x43cm
– To see a patient ‘s intestine readying
– Identify the place of the renal
– Determining the exposure factor
– Looking for any pathology
Size of the movie – 24x30cm
– Images taken after injection of contrast media
– The dosage of contrast medium was 50ml, and the image taken instantly after the injection is made
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
– See opasiti nephritic and measure the system after his kidney perinkima injected contrast media
– To demo nefrogram stage of the nephritic parenchyma shows
5 minute movie
Size of movie – 35x30cm
– KUB image after 5 proceedingss of contrast medium injected
– To measure the secernment of contrast media in both nephritic
– To see the symmetricalness in both kidneys
– Demonstrate system pelvic girdle
15 proceedingss movie
Size of movie – 24x30cm
– The accent used to stamp down the patient ‘s venters
– Radiogram kidney after force per unit area for 10 proceedingss performed 15 proceedingss after injection
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A – To show the system pelvis kalikseal
A A A A A A A A A – Indicates the denseness of the pelvic girdle with contrast agent system
A A A A A A A A A – Prevention of contrast media down to the ureter
Size of movie – 35 x 43 centimeter
– KUB radiogram after entire removal tool accent
– to demo the full urinary piece of land
– To see a complete contrast media pnegaliran whole ureter
Size of movie – 35 x 43 centimeter
– Pictures taken after the urine removed from the vesica piss
– To guarantee that the staying balance of contrast media in the urinary piece of land
A – To measure the ability urater and vesica voidance
– Show any abnormalcy such as vesica tumour
The manner of contrast media injection
– Medial vena injected kubital dangan 19 dent needle dike is a temperature contrast agents ( 40 grades Celsius ) in the measure continues.
The intent of reviews carried IVU
Many diseases that occur in the kidneys, ureters and vesica will react with a determination that should be accepted after the process carried out, which should hold two phases.A First of wholly, it requires a functioning kidney to filtrate the liquid out of the blood and into the piss ( the piss ) .A The clip required for a liquid chemical that is to look at x beam scrutinies carried out exactly at the clip of kidney function.A The 2nd stage shows the anatomical characteristics of the image clearer.A For the first few proceedingss, the liquid chemical to be ‘shining ‘ in the kidney, a stage which is called nephrogram.A The sequence of images which would bespeak that the chemical liquid to be downloaded through the variety meats of the ureter and excretory systems straight into the bladder.A The last movie of him taken after the patient ‘s intestine and the images will demo how good the vesica removed.
IVPs is one method of review is frequently carried out in order to observe any structural abnormalcy or obstruction of urine drainage in the urinary tract.A If the kidneys showed no unnatural reaction Bals, more movies are required to enter the earliest stages of the procedure.
aˆ? Formation of kidney rocks, tumours ( tumour ) and inborn defect from birth.
aˆ? Abnormalities of kidney and the malignant neoplastic disease appears.
aˆ? Surgery or transportation to the kidney or ureter doing infinite to infection like malignant neoplastic disease for illustration.
aˆ? vesica malignant neoplastic disease and other defects as shown by the liquid in the vesica.
aˆ? prostate secretory organ expansion will be shown when the vesica does non empty wholly may implement and there is a bump at the terminal of the vesica.
Merely the most of import complications of IVP and unsafe, has allergic reactions to iodine-containing fluid to be used.A Allergies such as the following are rare, but it is really unsafe and can do death.A Emergency action is taken rapidly are frequently rather effectual.
IVPs dijalnkan normally in the forenoon, to have on apparels that are available in x-ray section, the patient will take all vesture and will be in baringakan.A There are two ways to shoot a liquid chemical into the body.A Intraveneus line procedure can be carried out, in which the uninterrupted liquid will be put into the organic structure during the procedure.A The other manner is to give all of the liquid chemical through the acerate leaf at the same clip a new issue.A X raies will be taken until the liquid is sampi into the vesica, the presence can be seen within half an hr or less.A Patients will be asked to empty the vesica, intestine dangan before undergoing a concluding X raies.
Effectss of allergic reaction to contrast agents are the lone jeopardies that may occur.A Anyone with a possible allergic reaction to iodine or before the x-rays must take precautional steps to turn to the job dangan interpreter X ray.
Urinary piece of land infection
The most common jobs and was treated by doctors.A Urinary piece of land infection may be known as the ‘infection ‘ vesica ( cystitis ) if the bacterium found in the vesica or kidney infection ( pyelonephritis ) if there are bacteriums in the kidneys.
aˆ? Children who throw H2O at dark.
aˆ? Frequent micturition.
aˆ? Pain and firing esthesis when urinating.
aˆ? Fever and experiencing cold
Pain or achings in the back below the ribs