Processed Grains For Human Consumption Biology Essay

Ready-to-eat cereals are defined as processed grains for human ingestion made in such a manner that no farther cookery is required. ( Lee, 1995 ) Cereals are first-class beginnings of saccharides and dietetic fibers. They besides contain assorted unreal minerals and vitamins. RTE cereals are a regular basic in the universe diet and can be consumed by all ages. The popularity of RTE cereals is based on the fact that cereals merchandises are ease to devour and are rapidly prepared for people on the spell. The aim of this study is to sketch the procedure engineerings presently used in the fabrication of cereals and to update you on the new techniques that are being used to increase the output of cereal production.

Cereal Composition Breakdown

Ready-to-eat cereals are composed of two parts: the first portion is the cereal grain which can be from maize, wheat, oat, or rice. The 2nd portion of cereal is comprised of additives, sweetenings, vitamins, minerals, and preservatives.

The cereal grains are milled ( land to a pulverization ) before they are cooked. The grain is comprised of three parts: the endosperm, the bran, and the source. The endosperm, which is the larger part of the grain, is used to do cereal, maize repast, and maize flour in the same installation. The bran is used as carnal provender. And in conclusion the source is extracted for the oil it contains.

Some of the assorted additives, sweetenings, vitamins, minerals, and preservatives that are used in RTE cereal are listed in Table 1 ( Tribelhom, 1991 ) . These additives are added to the cereal after the cookery procedure.

Table 1: Additives Normally Used in Ready-to-eat Cereals


Use in cereals


Add butter or spill the beans coloring material to cereal merchandises

Barley Malt Flour

Add to raw stuff, beginning for I± , I?-amylase

Enhance amylum hydrolysis

Flavor foil

Butylated Hydroxyanisole

Prevention of oxidative rancidity of oils

Added to nutrient straight and/or to packaging stuffs

Butylated Hydroxytoluene

Lapp as Butylated hydroxyanisole

Brown Sugar

Flavor foil added at natural stuff phase or a portion of surfacing for cereal

Effective in control of gelatinization of amylum

Calcium Carbonate

Helps command puffing and cookery



Thickening or gelling agent


Used in cereal coatings

Cereal Malt Syrup

Used as a sweetening and spirit additive for natural stuffs and sugar coatings

Adds chocolate-brown coloring material to cereal

Corn Syrup

Sweetener and spirit additive for natural stuffs or sugar coatings

Inhibit crystallisation of saccharose during surfacing

Adds chocolate-brown coloring material to cereal

Guar Gum

Adhesive for coatings and glazes on cereal merchandises


Flavor foil added to raw stuff or used in surfacing for cereal


Spirit betterment

Sugar ( saccharose )

Flavor foil and sweetening


Control of enlargement in puffed cereal merchandises

Solvent for sugar and other cereal coatings


Flavor foil

The Malting Procedure

Malting is the procedure of change overing germinated barley grains to brown sirup. The brown sirup ( Malt ) is a syrupy flavorer liquid. Malt provides RTE cereals with a sweet spirit and tints the coloring material of the cereal to a light brown. The malt is diluted with H2O before being added to the cereal after cooking. Note, if excessively much malt is added to the cereal so a acrimonious gustatory sensation will develop.

Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are added to RTE cereals for nutritionary value. Some of the vitamins that are added to cereal are:


Folic acid


Vitamins A, D, B1, B2, B6, and B12

Some of the Minerals which are added to cereals are:






Sweetenings are additives to RTE cereals that give them a sweet gustatory sensation. Granulated sugar and/or liquid sugar are on a regular basis used as a convenient manner to add a sweet gustatory sensation to cereal. Liquid sugar is comprised of portion granulated sugar ( sucrose ) and H2O. Other sweetenings that are besides used in the industry are: honey, frost, brown sugar or liquid brown sugar, maize sirup, and non-caloric sweetenings like aspartame. ( Caldwell & A ; Fast, 1990 )


Preservatives are added to the cereal merchandises to retard rancidity and maintain of the cereals merchandise for a set sum of clip. The preservatives are non straight added to the cereals merchandises but are sprayed onto the insides of the cereal packaging stuff. Butylated hydroxyanisole ( BHA ) and Butylated hydroxytoluene ( BHT ) are two of the most normally used preservatives used in the industry.

The Manufacturing Process of RTE Cereals

A general procedure over position for the fabrication of cereals involves cooking of the natural stuffs ( flour from grains ) into a gelatinized mass, so comes the defining of the mass into single cereal spots, so the cereal spots are dried, coated and packaged into finished cereal merchandises. To give the cereal character, texturization procedure are added, they are: Flaking, crispening, baking, puffing, squeeze outing and surfacing. The thought here is to give the cereal construction, spirit, and to better digestibleness for costumier. ( Clark P. J. , 1986 )

The different fabrication procedures that are used in the production of cereals are flaking, oven-puffing, and bulge. These methods are described below.

Flaked Cereals

Cornflakes are flaked cereals that are produced out of polished whole maize meats. The milling of the maize meat breaks down the meat into spots called grits. One grit makes one flake. The major stairss in the production of flaked cereals is foremost the grains are cleaned utilizing H2O and so milled to obtained the grits. The intent of milling is to bring forth unvarying grits which will give unvarying flakes. The cleansing and milling stairss can be removed if the cereal industry chooses to purchase flour from a provider. The grits or flour is so cooked in a machine-controlled rotary batch force per unit area cooker. The cooker uses steam at a force per unit area of 15 – 18 pounds per square inch ( 1atm ) and is heated to around 122 oC for 2 hours. The rotary force per unit area cooker rotates one to four revolution ( s ) per minute to forestall combustion and uneven cookery of the flour. The rotary force per unit area cooker transforms the natural amylum to digestible stuff. A typical rotary force per unit area cooker is 1.2 m in diameter and 2.4 m in length. The wet content of the gelatinized merchandise after cooking normally is 32 % or less ( Caldwell & A ; Fast, 1990 ) . Figure 1 illustrates the flaking procedure process.

The merchandise after cookery is so carried off to the delumper on a conveyer belt. The delumper breaks the cooked merchandise down into smaller balls ( cereal pieces ) . Then the balls are sent to a drier to be dried at a temperature of 121 oC. The wet content will cut down to 10 – 14 % in the drier. The dried merchandise is so tempered in annealing bins so that the wet content can make equilibrium. Moisture equilibration takes about 24 hours for completion. Moisture equilibration is necessary for uniformity and besides if there is non-uniformity so the flakes will be over toasted in the ulterior set of browning.

The cereal flakes are so sent to flaking axial rotations. These flaking axial rotations operate at different velocities so that the cereal dough ( with 10 – 14 % wet content ) will stretch into sheets of cereal flakes. The typical capacities of flaking axial rotations are about 30 lb/min. These flakes are so toasted for 50 sec at about 300 oC. The toasting measure gives the merchandise a toasty spirit and a light chocolate-brown coloring material. The wet content at the terminal is 1.5 – 3 % . This little sum of wet content is necessary so that the merchandise will non be difficult, dry and brickle.

Figure 1: The Flaking Procedure

Oven-Puffed Cereals

Rice Krispies is an illustration of oven-puffed cereals. The fabrication procedure for oven-puffed is really similar to that of flaked cereals. The rice grains are cleaned and so cooked in a rotary force per unit area cooker for 1 1.5 hours at 122 oC. After the cookery rhythm the rice grains are dried in a drier for 30 – 45 min and left to anneal in a annealing bin for 1 or 2 yearss. After this the grains are passed through flaking axial rotations. This clip the axial rotations operate at the same velocity. This is to make a bumping gesture alternatively of a stretching gesture. The bumping creates crevices within the rice grains which will let heat to perforate the grains when they are heated inside an oven. The grains are so sent to an aerated oven where they are puffed and leave with a wet content of 9 – 11 % ( Caldwell & A ; Fast, 1990 ) . Figure 2 illustrates the oven-puff procedure process.

The aerated oven is controlled at a temperature of 288 – 343 oC. When the rice grains are subjected to high temperatures, the H2O inside the bumped grain will travel from the liquid stage to the gaseous stage. The point of vaporisation of H2O in the grains is considered to be the point of blinking. It is this flashing that causes the grain to whiff ( a important volume enlargement of the plasticized matrix ) to happen ( Clark P. J. , 1986 ) .

Figure 2: Oven-Puffing Procedure

Cereal Bulge

An illustration of extruded cereals is Froot Loops or Corn Pops. Cereal bulge is to use high heat and high force per unit area to raw stuffs to organize comestible cereal piece. This method of operation has many advantages over traditional 1s and this is why this method is largely used today around the universe. The procedure is really energy efficient because of the high heat transportation and since the mechanical energy produced by turning and conveying gesture of the prison guards can besides be used to cook the stuff. The annealing bins are besides removed and hence a batch of the infinite demand for other methods is non needed for this method. The cereal bulge method can besides be used to cook and do more than one type of cereal merchandise ( flaked and oven-puffed cereals ) ( Harper, 1986 ) . Figure 3 illustrates the bulge procedure process.

Figure 3: Bulge Procedure

New Developments in Cereal Processing

Twin Screw Extruders

Twin Screw Cooking Extruder ( TSE ) is a common nutrient processing unit, immensely used in the baking industry. It consists of fast-speed bioreactor with warming, chilling, compacting, blending, vaporizing, cutting, and air outing confined one unit operation. Twin-screw extruders are now going more popular in the industry due to their ability to pull strings a figure of parametric quantities easy. ( Schlosburg, 2005 )


The first commercial usage of extruders was found to be in the gum elastic industry in the late 1870s. These extruders comprised of random-access memory extruders and screw extruders of short length to diameter ratios. In 1935, the basic rules of twin screw bulge were considered and implemented in to the thermoplastics industry. In 1960s, the first commercial production of dry ready to eat cereals utilizing the individual prison guard cooking extruder was introduced to the nutrient industry. With clip developments in countries of procedure control, equipment design, such as development of twin prison guard extruders, and sound apprehension of the bulge procedure kept research workers motivated. ( Riaz, 2000 )

Past Concerns

Single screw extruders often experienced slippage and billowing due to high force per unit area in the barrel. As a consequence the merchandise did non undergo proper cookery or processing. The control over treating parametric quantities such as temperature, force per unit area, screw velocity, wet content and flow rate was limited. Single screw extruders were incapable of cleaning themselves taking to possible dead musca volitanss intending if conveyed will adhere to the prison guards. Further, this burned on merchandise was interrupting and barricading the dice and stop uping the barrel. Single Screw extruder allowed merely a figure of merchandises to be made. In add-on, the scale-up, the procedure of traveling from research lab development of a merchandise to all-out production, was a job with individual prison guard cooking extruders. ( Clextral )

The turning demand of ready to eat cereals and defects in the individual prison guard extruders served as inducements to the development of more advanced engineering. With Twin Screw Extruders in the market, the companies started to demo involvement in them. In the last few decennaries, the twin screw extruder with intermeshing, self pass overing prison guards has emerged from the nutrient bulge research lab to the production floor rather successfully. As more and more companies started to demo concern in respects to the SSEs, the epoch of TSEs was get downing. Those utilizing the bulge were afraid that individual screw extruders may no longer be the most efficient agencies of bring forthing their merchandises. Thus, many companies made the determination of replacing their individual prison guard extruders with the twin screw cooking extruders. ( Riaz, 2000 )

New Developments in Bulge

The new research has allowed research worker to develop duplicate prison guard extruders. Twin screw extruders have great ability and flexibleness for commanding both merchandise and procedure parametric quantities. They are a flexible design, allowing easy cleansing and rapid merchandise conversion. The ability to better fit the coveted shear gives twin-screw extruder more control over merchandise variableness. ( Hauck, 1988 )

Twin Screw Extruders have many advantages over the traditional agencies of bulge cookery. For case, Twin screw extruders are flexible and allow assortment of merchandises to be processed by merely changing the ingredients and treating conditions. The output of TSEs is besides high as it acts as a complete processing works consisting of commixture, cookery, organizing and shearing of cereals. Consequently, this makes TSE cost effectual equipment. Presently, these extruders are able to treat 16 dozenss per hr of finished merchandise. Furthermore, the High Temperature Short Time ( HTST ) cooking method on a TSE produces better-quality merchandises. In add-on, it forces harmful temperature sensitive bacteriums to decease while cut downing the loss of foods or spirits in the nutrient being produced. In some procedures, twin screw bulge is energy efficient. This is because the TSEs can cook more rapidly and proficiently due to shorter reaction times, control over temperature and wet. ( Clextral )

Screw Extrusion procedure adds heat to the processing cereal by agencies of change overing mechanical energy to heat. As the prison guard rotates inside the equipment it produces clash which in bend signifiers heat. Due to this really ground Single Screw extruders are limited to 12-17 % fat degree in the expression. As fat content above the specified will lubricate the rotating equipment which will forestall the hardware transform mechanical energy into heat. In contrast, fat degree in the formula for twin-screw extruders can be every bit high as 18-22 % and still keep the mechanical energy. This is merely possible because of more screw constellations options with duplicate prison guard extruders. In individual prison guard extruders with the aid of steam injection, fat content in a formula can be achieved every bit high as 17 % nevertheless, in the TSE with steam add-on will give better binding of the fat in the merchandise and will diminish the escape of fat from the merchandises during managing and packaging. Moisture content is really critical during the bulge procedure for amylum gelatinization and protein denaturizing. An mean wet content in a typical expression ranges from 20-28 % . Twin screw extruders have the ability to run under a narrow scope or broad scopes of wet. ( Guy, 2001 )

Figure 4: Twin Screw Cooking Extruder ( Baldwin, 2007 )

Table 2: Ascents in SSE theoretical account ( Clextral )

Single Screw Cooking Extruder Technology ( SSE )

Twin Screw Cooking Extruder ( TSE )

Improved Cereal Cooking

In a individual prison guard extruder, clash between the prison guard and the barrel is used to convey the merchandise. As a consequence SSE frequently experience slippage and surging

Eliminated slipping and surging, taking to proper cereal cookery

Enhanced Control

Limited control over treating factors such as temperature, force per unit area, screw velocity, wet content and flow rate

Unlimited control over all processing factors

Improved Mix

Poor Mixing due to merely individual prison guard operation

TSE ‘s uses a broad assortment of blending rudimentss, including intricate commixture phonograph record, change by reversal prison guards and compaction prison guards that provide superior commixture

Self Cleaning

Single screw machines do non hold this characteristic

The double prison guard on a twin prison guard extruder are “ self-wiping “

More Flexibility in Production

TSE can bring forth broad scope of merchandises in add-on to the 1s that get processed in SSE

It can treat nutrients at higher wet contents, higher fat content and higher sugar content

They can accept dry ingredients at changing atom size whereas, SSEs require unvarying atom size for optimum processing

Scale Up

Scale-up on TSE ‘s is easy every bit long as proper information is recorded during research and development of new merchandises


Drying is the operation that takes topographic point after the coating session. Drying clip and temperature varies from one cereal merchandise to another. Cereal driers use really hot air traveling at high speeds to dry cereals. Rotary and flat-bed driers are used in the drying of cereals.

The rotary drier is a big horizontal cylinder which can raise and drop flakes through a bed of hot air. These driers are normally non used for fragile or brickle merchandises.

A flat-bed drier is better suited for delicate merchandises like cornflakes. It is a big slow moving, porous support, dwelling of either segmented pierced home bases or a uninterrupted bed. The air flows from top to bottom and even the other manner.


Tube-jet and tubing -aerated bed wassailers are designed for drying, crispening and whiffing. Hot air is blown through the blowhole valve into a force per unit area plenum which seats at the top and over the length of the drier. Long tubes so hang down from the plenum towards the conveyer belt below. The equipment is set up so that different temperatures and speeds can be applied to the merchandise during different phases of the cereal development.

Cereal Fortification

Fortification is the add-on of vitamins or minerals into cereal which is losing these indispensable foods. Heat stable vitamins ( i.e. nicotinic acid and vitamin B2 ) are added before cereal processing and heat-sensitive 1s ( i.e. Vitamin A and vitamin B1 ) are added after the warming subdivision ( Lee, 1995 ) .

Cereal Packaging

The packaging for cereals must be a strong carton which can be used to protect the cereals from unsmooth handling and breakage. The line drives most resist and protect against smells and wet incursion from outside and in. Besides no spirit should get away from packaging. Ideally, line drives and cartons should be effectual barriers that can minimise odour or spirit between the merchandises and their milieus ( Lee, 1995 ) .


In order to significantly better RTE cereal fabrication procedure, alterations ought to be made in its cardinal unit operations – Flaking, Expansion, Shredding, or Extrusion ( Clark P. , 2009 ) . During the past two decennaries, major betterments have been focused in the procedure of Extrusion. Use of microprocessors, switch to extrusion cookery and humidness control contact has been used efficaciously ( Fast R. , 2001 ) ( Fast R. , 2001 ) .

Control & A ; Instrumentation Improvements

As the RTE cereal industry has evolved over the past 100 old ages, so has the demand for Control & A ; Instrumentation of the procedures involved in RTE cereal fabrication. Applications of computing machine control have been implemented since the late 1980 ‘s. However, since the computing machine industry is more quickly altering than the RTE cereal industry, there is ever a important sum of advancement that could be made in the utilizing advanced computerised control in optimising the uninterrupted or batch procedures of RTE cereal fabrication.

In the early yearss of implementing PLC control systems, mechanization was desired to accomplish a high truth in weighing liquids, indispensable substances such as amylum, and ingredients added in little measures ( Fast R. , 2001 ) . Furthermore, assorted unit operations can be optimized to increase their efficiency. Those unit operations include Cooling, Coating, Toasting. To exemplify farther, a combination of Feedback/Feedforward cringle accountants could be efficaciously used to keep the optimal temperature while executing such unit operations. Likewise, cascade accountants could be utilized to modulate the flow rate of provender while at the same time keeping another procedure variable such as temperature, particularly in uninterrupted procedures that have really short abode times.

As Fast ( 2001 ) discussed, compared to cereal makers two decennaries ago, they can accomplish ‘total works control ‘ really easy because of the integrating of personal computing machines and its high-speed calculating power to the unit operations of the fabrication procedure line. More significantly, one of the most important achievements of utilizing computing machine control in cereal industry is “ Just-in-time ” stock list engineering. Large-scale cereal makers have been able to incorporate their production with retail merchants efficaciously. ( Heron & A ; Hayward, 2002 )

As shown in the figure below, Process Control implies PLCs ( Programmable logic accountants ) , DSCs ( Distributed control systems ) , Loop accountants, hard-wired systems, dedicated hardware. Likewise, MES implies PC-based package bundles, which built upon the PLCs. Similarly, Information system ( IS ) , which includes Networked PCs and terminuss, was built upon the coming of packages.

Figure 5. Control System Platforms at the three degrees of Computer Control and Information Gathering. IS = Information System, MES = Manufacturing executing system ( Fast & A ; Caldwell, 2000 )

Another important achievement is that of electronic ascents in ingredient weight systems. Bulk dry and liquid ingredients are accurately measured to high degrees of microprocessor edification ( Fast R. , 2001 ) . Equally of import, this development in cereal fabrication demands to be utilized in such a manner that it could take to implementing more figure of uninterrupted procedures instead than batch procedures.

Quality Monitoring Development

Apparently, merchandise quality cheques in cereal fabrication industry are done in three countries – wet, colour and majority denseness. Traditionally, techniques such as near infrared ( NIR ) engineering or electrical capacity measurement have been used to mensurate wet content in cereals. Likewise, with the coming of computing machine control, colour measuring is done utilizing online colour coefficient of reflection systems. Similarly, bulk denseness of cereal, which is besides measured on-line, is measured utilizing a computer-driven cup. ( Fast R. , 2001 )

However, some theoretical accounts of NIR, peculiarly, have been undependable and unstable because NIR spectrometry has been insensitive to mineral content ( Huang, Yu, Xu, & A ; Ying, 2008 ) . Interestingly, important betterments have been made in this country by implementing a combination of techniques such as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, UV visible radiation and electronic noise technique ( Cimander, Carlsson, & A ; Mandenius, 2002 ) ( Navratil, Cimander, & A ; Mandenius, 2004 ) . Both, Cimander ( 2002 ) and Navratil ( 2004 ) , have been successful in tackling the best of such a combination.

Improvements in the Procedure of Cooking

It is in the unit operation of bulge cookery of RTE cereal that has seen important developments during the past old ages. Bulge cookery, seemingly, holds a greater advantage over traditional batch cookery procedure ( Fast R. , 2001 ) . These important developments have been attributed to assorted ascents made in bulge cookery. Foremost of the these ascents is the redesign of force per unit area vas. Furthermore, the other upgrades include automated hatch screen mechanisms, duplicate screw extruders and design flexibleness of screw elements ( Fast R. , 2001 ) . Over the following few old ages, this already enhanced procedure of extrusion-cooking might include farther developments such as application of everlasting pea wholemeal ( Kasprzak & A ; Rzedzick, 2008 ) .

As shown in the figure below, bulge cooker has five zones – high force per unit area zone, shear zone, conveying zone, blending zone, and conveying zone.

Figure 6. Conventional Diagram of Extrusion Cooker, demoing its constituents ( Kent & A ; Evers, 1994 )


In decision, important alterations have been observed over the past twosome of decennaries in the countries of Process control and Instrumentation, Extrusion cooking engineering. Likewise, minor developments have been observed in Quality control, drying, blending, annealing.

As computational power of processors additions, microprocessor edification will further increase the truth of assorted unit operations. This addition in truth of measurings coupled with incorporate computing machine control of RTE cereal fabrication procedure, farther mechanization and newer conceptual engineerings such as “ Just-in-time ” stock list systems would be developed.