Sexual activity And Laterality Essay, Research Paper
This paper discusses the differences in lateralization among males and females. More specifically, it discusses the differences in verbal and visuospatial ability among different sexes. The common hypothesis, which has been proven by assorted people, is that males are superior to adult females in visuospatial undertakings while adult females are superior in verbal undertakings. This difference among males and females is due to the fact that the male encephalon is more lateralized than that of a female. The intent of the experiment explained in this paper was to turn out the common hypothesis by proving males and females with a verbal and visuospatial undertaking.
“ Lateralization refers to the discriminatory usage or superior map of one portion of the organic structure? ” ( Martin, 1998, p.135 ) Lateralization pertains to the thought that certain maps or undertakings can be performed better by one side of the organic structure. Specific to this paper, certain parts of the encephalon are designated to execute merely certain undertakings. It has been proven that the encephalon is lateralized, intending that one hemisphere is dominant for specific maps and the other is dominant for other maps. “ The conventional position of hemispheric map is that the left hemisphere is rational, verbal, additive, and analytical whereas the right hemisphere is emotional, spacial, holistic and intuitive. ” ( Martin, 1998, p.140 ) Though the right encephalon is more involved in facets of visuospatiality and the left more involved in linguistic communication & # 8221 ; ? the right hemisphere is capable of set abouting fundamental or compensatory linguistic communication processing and the left hemisphere is capable of set abouting some spacial processing. “ ( Martin, 1998, p.140 )
The thought of lateralisation can be applied to the difference among people in laterality. It has been observed that left-handed people appear to be superior to right- handed people on trials of verbal accomplishments. However, left handers are inferior to right handers on trials of visuospatial undertakings. The ground that left-handed people have superior verbal ability is because they have more mass of the left encephalon able to be devoted to linguistic communication. Therefore, since there is a big country of the right hemisphere devoted to linguistic communication small mass is available to visuospatiality, its ain specialisation. ( Springer & A ; Deutch, 1981, p.154 ) Handedness is one of many ways in which the presence of lateralization in the encephalon can be observed.
Through assorted surveies it has been found that the female encephalon is less lateralized than the male encephalon. A great sum of grounds has shown that females are superior to males in undertakings, which involve the usage of linguistic communication while males are superior to females in spacial undertakings. ( Springer & A ; Deutch, 1981, p.121 ) It is found that the female encephalon is more symmetrical than the male encephalon. This means that there is less nervous mass in the female encephalon to give to specific maps. Males are able to give a big sum of their left encephalon to verbal undertakings and a big sum of their right encephalon to visuospatial undertakings. However, this means that if one subdivision of the encephalon is damaged a male may wholly lose ability to execute the undertakings associated with that portion of the encephalon. But, because the female encephalon is more symmetrical, harm to a subdivision of the encephalon may non be inhibited because an indistinguishable subdivision may be present on the opposite side of the encephalon. The left hemisphere of the female encephalon is still largely devoted to linguistic communication but the right hemisphere is non devoted to visuospatial undertakings every bit much as the male encephalon.
Because of the information discussed above it is hypothesized that the consequences of this experiment will uncover a difference between males and females. It is expected that the males will execute better on the visuospatial undertaking and the females will execute better on the verbal undertaking.
The undertakings used in this experiment are considered pure undertakings, intending that merely either visuospatiality or verbal ability was tested. In an impure undertaking both abilities are tested. If the two abilities are tested together than the consequences will non be accurate. ( Coltheart, Hull & A ; Slater, 1975, p. 439 )
nt involved 97 psychological science pupils ; 27 males, 70 females. The stuffs used in this experiment consisted of a pencil/pen, a stop watch, and paper.
The teacher must divide the pupils into groups of two. For the first undertaking one individual was the recording equipment and the other was the topic being experimented on. The groups were arranged so that an even figure of males and females take part in each undertaking.
The first undertaking required the pupils to mentally travel through the alphabet, A to Z and number the figure of letters which contain the sound & # 8216 ; ee & # 8217 ; . This is merely a mental undertaking. Nothing was to be used by the pupil being tested to help them. The teacher told the pupils when to get down. When instructed the recording equipment started the stop watch instantly and the topic began the undertaking. When the topic was completed the undertaking the recording equipment recorded the clip needed to finish the undertaking. The consequences were so handed into the teacher to roll up the consequences.
For the 2nd undertaking the recording equipment and capable reversed functions. This undertaking required the topic to mentally travel through the alphabet, A to Z, and number the figure of letters which contain a curve in the typed, capital signifier of the missive. The topic was timed and the consequences were recorded and handed into the teacher.
From the first undertaking the overall mean was a clip of 21.71 seconds and an reply of 8.60. The average reply for the females was 9.38 with a clip of 19.66 seconds as compared to the males with a average reply of 7.87 and a clip of 23.75 seconds. The right reply for this undertaking was 9 letters incorporating the sound & # 8216 ; ee & # 8217 ; . This reply was obtained merely if the missive & # 8216 ; Z & # 8217 ; was pronounced & # 8216 ; zee & # 8217 ; non & # 8216 ; zed & # 8217 ; .
From the 2nd undertaking the overall mean was a clip of 27.76 seconds and an reply of 11.46. The average reply for females was 12.03 with a clip of 29.81 seconds as compared to the males with a average reply of 11.06 and a clip of 25.92 seconds. The right reply for this undertaking was 11 letters incorporating a curve in the typed, capital signifier.
From the consequences obtained from the experiment the hypothesis that males are superior to females in visuospatial undertakings and that females are superior to males in verbal undertakings has been proven to be true. The first undertaking was a verbal undertaking as it involved the pronunciation of words which is associated with linguistic communication. The consequences obtained from the verbal undertaking revealed that the females were able to finish the undertaking quicker and more accurately than the males. This supports the fact that “ ? females are superior to males in a broad scope of accomplishments that require the usage of linguistic communication? ” ( Springer & A ; Deutch, 1981, p.121 ) . However, the consequences from this undertaking are slightly inaccurate because it was non specified whether the missive & # 8216 ; Z & # 8217 ; was to be pronounced as & # 8216 ; zee & # 8217 ; or & # 8216 ; zed & # 8217 ; . Because of this inaccuracy, the consequences of the first undertaking can non be genuinely analyzed to explicate the differences in verbal accomplishments.
The consequences obtained from the 2nd, visuospatial undertaking support the belief that males are able to execute better on spacial undertakings. The males were able to finish this undertaking quicker and more accurately than the females. These consequences support the thoughts discussed in the literature.
The difference in lateralization between males and females has been observed but, what is the ground for these differences? It has been suggested that because females tend to be weaker than males a greater ability to voice is needed for a agencies of protection. ( Geschwind and Galaburda, 1984, p.138 ) In add-on, it is believed that throughout development males have been the huntsmans and so necessitate good visuospatial accomplishments in order to be successful. Whereas the adult females have been the female parents and so hold a greater demand for the usage of communicating. ( Springer & A ; Deutch, 1981, p. 128 )
Coltheart, M. , Hull, E. & A ; Slater, D. ( 1975 ) . Nature ( Volume 253 ) , pp.438 & # 8211 ; 440.
Geschwind & A ; Galaburda. ( 1984 ) . Cerebral Dominance, U.S.A: President and Fellows of Harvard College.
Martin, G. ( 1998 ) . Human Neuropsychology. Middlesex: Prentice Hall Europe.
Springer, S.P. , & A ; Deutch, G. (