Steinbeck Essay, Research Paper
John Ernst Steinbeck was an American writer, celebrated for his novels refering the hapless and the laden Californian husbandmans and labourers of the 1930 & # 8217 ; s and 1940 & # 8217 ; s, who were victimized by industry and finance. His most celebrated novel, The Grapes of Wrath, won the 1940 Pulitzer Prize. His chief subjects involved the battles of the hapless and the oppressed to last in modern society, and the confrontation between adult male and his destiny.1 Steinbeck wrote 17 novels, legion short narratives, several dramas, and some nonfiction. He won the Nobel award for literature in 1962.2
John Steinbeck was born February 27, 1902, in Salinas, California. Salinas is in a fertile agricultural vale about 25 stat mis from the Pacific Coast. His childhood was spent in California near Monterey. The Salinas country provided the scene for most of his fiction. He was an intelligent, sensitive male child and pass much clip researching nature.3 His parents were of German and Irish parenthood. They were neither rich non hapless, but lived a comfy being in Salinas.4 His male parent, John Ernst, a county financial officer, was sympathetic to his boy & # 8217 ; s desiring to go a writer.5 His female parent, Olive Ernst ( nee Hamilton ) , was a school teacher and did much to promote him to read. He was provided with an extended library at home1 and spent much of his clip reading when he was non outside researching nature.
All his childhood schooling was in the Salinas country. He graduated from Salinas High School in 1919.2 He had been president of his senior category, active on both the path and hoops squads, and had wrote for the El Gabilan, the Salinas High School paper. 3 After graduation, he attended Stanford University in California. He was a particular pupil from 1919-1925. Steinbeck off and on took classs in literature and classs in authorship, but he earned less than half the needed credits,4 and did non have a grade from Stanford. He left school in November of 1925 for New York City. He hoped to go a author but was he was shortly back in California.5
Steinbeck was a really private individual and his married life seems sketchy in most profiles. He married Carol Henning in 1930 and they were divorced in 1943. He following married Gwyn Conger, who was a author, vocalist, and composer, on March 29, 1943, but they were divorced in 1948. He had two kids, Tom and John, in this matrimony. He married one more clip, this clip to Elaine Scott on December 29, 1950. He stayed married til he died on December 20, 1968, in New York City.1
John Steinbeck had a really varied occupation description by the clip he made it as a author. Constantly making assorted odd, occasional occupations to back up himself, he managed to be a rancher, route worker, deck manus, cotton picker,2 hod-carrier, fruit-picker, learner painter, research lab helper, caretaker, surveyor, newsman, and author. 3 These assorted odd occupations supplied him with much of the stuff for his early novels and his observations lent genuineness and pragmatism to the working work forces and their adult females in his narratives.
Aside from being a author of books, Steinbeck held other composing occupations during his calling as a author. These composing occupations include that of a Foreign letter writer in North Africa and Italy for the New York Herald Tribune, in 1943. He was besides a particular author for the United States Army Air Forces, during World War II. He subsequently became a letter writer in Vietnam for Newday from 1966-1967. Over the old ages he was besides a subscriber of legion short narratives, essays, and articles to popular magazines and periodicals. 4
John Steinbeck received many awards, awards and acknowledgment for his work. He received the General Literature Gold Medal from the Commonwealth Club of California three times: in 1936, for Tortilla Flat, in 1937, for Of Mice and Men, and in 1940, for Grapes of Wrath. The New York Drama critics Circle Award was awarded to him in 1938, for the drama, “ Of Mice and Men ” . The desired and esteemed Pulitzer Prize in novel was given to him in 1940, for The Grapes of Wrath. He got Academy Award ( Oscar ) nominations for best original narrative, Academy of Motion image Arts and Sciences in 1944, for “ Lifeboat ” and in 1945, for “ A Medal for Benny ” . The Nobel Prize for literature was awarded to Steinbeck in 1962. And the Paperback of the Year Award, Best Sellers, was awarded to him in 1964, for Travels with Charley: In Search of America.1
Steinbeck & # 8217 ; s first novel, Cup of Gold, was published in 1929. The narrative was about the plagiarist Sir Henry Morgan and had a Faustian subject. Steinbeck believed it was the lone book of his that could be filmed ( later proved incorrect, of class ) because it had all the elements of a Hollywood historical extravaganza.2 This novel attracted small attending. Today it is non widely read. It is non considered one of his good plants.
His following venture was Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932.
It was a aggregation of related narratives of slackly interlocked episodes in the life of a little rural community. It portrays people of a farm community near Salinas and shows their love of the land. He begins to demo a preoccupation with ordinary people of his country. This book was followed by To a God Unknown in 1933. This was a symbolic novel about adult male & # 8217 ; s mysterious relationship to the existence. He dealt with adult male & # 8217 ; s need for rites and adult male & # 8217 ; s need to happen significance somehow to the many and assorted state of affairss that he has no control.1
It wasn & # 8217 ; t until he published Tortilla Flat in 1935 that he gained a broad audience. This novel is an history of an unconventional Spanish community in Monterey, California. It was about the colorful and alone Spanish-speaking “ paisanos ” in Monterey, and was a humourous word picture of life among the dapper loafers who subsequently reappeared in Cannery Row, 1945, The Wayward Bus, 1947, and Sweet Thursday, 1954. These people create their ain distinct community, in rebellion against the commercial and mercenary values of society. Steinbeck vividly describes the life of the migrators and the hapless husbandmans. Finally the critics gave this work serious attending. This piece of work brought him popular success and fiscal security.2 This was followed by Dubious Battle, published in1936. This narrative deals with the violent labour work stoppages in California during the 1930 & # 8217 ; s, of the clangs between the California fruit agriculturists and the migratory workers. Steinbeck shows his broad political positions showing understanding for the predicament and intervention of the strikers. This
book was a survey of the manner in which the compulsive behaviour of a group may endanger its ain survival.1 Steinbeck tried to do a meaningful form out of the behaviour of exploited work forces who were non able to talk for themselves. Some critics believe this to be the finest work stoppage novel written in America.2
In 1937, Steinbeck published Of Mice and Men. He wanted to compose a novel as about like a drama as he could & # 8230 ; .it was transformed to Broadway phase about integral, every bit good as to the screen. This novel/play tells of the tragic friendly relationship between two migratory farm workers. He created an fable of self-government and demand & # 8230 ; . a parable & # 8230 ; no life is unworthy of fear & # 8230 ; ” life must be sacred even to a adult male who is obliged to destruct in order to salvage ” .3 It was a compact and deceivingly simple novella about a tragic friendly relationship. It was a work full of symbolism. Of Mice and Men was an immediate popular success with great fiscal wagess for Steinbeck. It appeared on best-seller lists, it was a Book-of-the-Month Club choice, and it was sold to Hollywood. Of Mice and Men opened on the New York phase on November 23, 1937 and won great critical and popular acclamation. Steinbeck won the Drama Critics & # 8217 ; Circle Award for
This was followed by The Red Pony, which was published in 1937. The critics considered this novelette to be a sensitive, beautiful fable, written in a lyrical manner. It besides was sold to Hollywood. The following book he published was The Long Valley in 1938. This was a aggregation of short narratives including those published individually in 1937 as The Red Pony. The best was yet to come.2
The Grapes of Wrath was published in 1939, and became Steinbecks most celebrated novel and won Steinbeck the Pulitzer award in 1940. This was a novel of societal protest that caused a fad of both congratulations and denouncement. It was inspired by his accompanying of several migratory workers to California and so populating in the cantonments and sing what the workers were sing. Steinbeck got really near to his topic at manus. The Grapes of Wrath was about the hapless Oklahoma husbandmans, Okies, from the Dust Bowl part of the Midwest, who migrated to California during the Great Depression of the 1930 & # 8217 ; s. The novel tells how the Joad household loses its farm through a bank foreclosure. The household so makes the hard journey to California to get down a new life in the land of promise. They find alternatively a land of waste, corruptness, and poorness. Expecting to happen work, nice rewards, and a opportunity to someday get their ain land, they are alternatively introduced to a system of degrading migratory labour cantonments, humble rewards, and near starvation.1 The novel tells how they and other migratory households are mistreated by the constabulary and assorted vitamin E
mployers in California. It has the inevitableness of a authoritative calamity. It was at first idea to be about the economic crisis of the 1930’s, it was subsequently thought that it portrays everyone’s hunt for human self-respect. It became symbolic of the adversities of every victim of the Dust bowl or of difficult times and summed up the resentment of the Depression decennary. This novel provoked a broad and aghast reaction.
“ The Grapes of Wrath was a phenomenon on the graduated table of a national event. It was publically banned and burned by citizens: it was debated on national wireless hook-ups ;
but above all was read. ” 2
His later books, during World War II, while on assignments in Europe, were Bombs Away, 1942 and The Moon is Down, 1942.
The Moon is Down describes the military business of a fictional state in Europe. This novella about the opposition motion in an occupied state was a thinly cloaked history of Germany & # 8217 ; s business of Norway. It was a controversial play-novelette, said to be a better drama than novel.3
Cannery Row was published in 1945. Its construction was loose and episodic. It dealt with the philistinism of modern civilisation.
and was really critical of the greed and shortsighted mercenary morality underlying modern civilisation today, as he saw it.
Cannery Row was criticized for its sentimental and unequal doctrine, lauding the failing of head and the devolution of character that the critics saw in his work.1
The Pearl was published in 1947. It started out as a motion-picture book in Mexico in 1945. It was subsequently redone as a long magazine narrative and so subsequently published into book signifier. Again, Steinbeck was critical of the philistinism of modern civilisation. He does this with an amplification of a Mexican fable & # 8211 ; a parable & # 8230 ; . good and evil, black and white & # 8230 ; .with no mediate. He creates a affecting narrative of good in despairing battle with evil.2
The Wayward Bus was published in 1947. It was a sarcasm on the modern concern adult male. It affirmed a adult male & # 8217 ; s built-in goodness and religion in his victory over evil.3
In 1952, he published East of Eden. This was a realistic and symbolic narrative about the demand for love and understanding among people. It stressed the ability adult male has to take between good and evil. It was parable verse form, and narrative of action all in one. It finds a meeting land for physical and religious escapade, researching each one.1 In 1954, he returned to the universe of Cannery Row with Sweet Thursday and in 1957 he did a political sarcasm on modern Gallic political relations called, The Short Reign of Pippin IV. 2
The Winter of Our Discontent was published in 1961, and led to his winning of the Nobel Prize in 1962. This was a realistic narrative about morality in a suburban community. It was a novel of societal protest, presenting, ” a crisis in the life of a adult male of esthesia, intelligence, and wit who undertakes wilfully to populate by the codification of a modern pirate. “ 3 Steinbeck is seeking to demo how false the values of society may be.4
Steinbeck followed this with Travels with Charley in 1962. This book is autobiographical and describes a trip across America in a pickup truck with his pet poodle, named Charley. It was an experiment in self-discovery and an attempt to rediscover America.5
The Acts of King Arthur and His Baronial Knights was posthumously published in 1976. It is a retelling of the King Arthur narratives by Sir Thomas Mallory. This was something he had ever wanted to make, doing the narratives available in contemporary address for all to read and understand, and to love every bit much as he did.1
Many of his books have bee written as screenplays and become films: Grapes of Wrath, with Henry Fonda, filmed by Twentieth century-Fox Film Corp. 1940 ; Of Mice and Men, starring Burgess Meredith and Lon Chaney, was produced by United Artists in 1939 ; Tortilla Flat, having Spencer Tracy, was filmed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1942 ; The Moon is Down, starred Sir Cedric Hardwicke and Lee J. Cobb, produced by Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corp, in 1943 ; East of Eden, starring James Dean and Jo Van Fleet, who won an Academy award for her public presentation, was filmed by Warner Bros. in 1954 ; The Red Pony, starring Henry Fonda and Maureen O & # 8217 ; Harra, 1973 ; The Pearl ; The Forgotten Village ;
and Viva Zapata! 2
Over the old ages, critic have had much to state about his work. Many believe his earlier work ( in the 1930 & # 8217 ; s ) was better than his ulterior work. Many saw his work loaded with broad positions and understanding for the downtrodden. Many felt that the naturalism and sociological preoccupation of much of his early work gave manner in his mature old ages to a deeper position of human life, and renewed critical involvement revealed elements of fable in his finest work. Some saw his work as holding a lyric quality. Others felt that his best work came out of his outrage at unfairness and his esteem for the hapless.
“ His public presentation from the start was accomplished and professional: his books were carefully designed harmonizing to artistic rules of his ain. The consequences were frequently traveling, ever upseting, and in several cases strikingly impressive. ” 1
He seemed ever to get down afresh, bespeaking a deficiency of direction.2 He was a narrator of persuasive power, ever making new universes, suiting no peculiar genre.
“ His best work dramatizes the predicament of adult male & # 8211 ; now tragically, now humorously, with the assistance of challenge, sarcasm, homely fluency, as elusive penetration & # 8211 ; as he indomitably struggles to do his environment a protective garment, non a hair-cloth shirt. “ 3
Some of his early critics saw him as a naif natural mastermind with limited resources and skill who on occasion did good work ; while others saw him as “ a stylist of originality and grace, disciplined, with nonliteral linguistic communication utilizing his ain metaphors. “ 4
Some do non like Steinbeck because he does non see the universe as they see it and does non state them what they wish to hear. His novels are easy to read and one frequently misses what is beneath the surface.5 But on one thing they have all agreed: he was ever cognizant of world & # 8217 ; s failing, defeats, failures, etc & # 8230 ; but was ever the creative person.
Steinbeck was called many things: naturalist, a mysterious, a primitive, a collectivist, an incurable businessperson, adult male of symbols and adult male of simplenesss, a sadist, an stripling. He was criticized for non acquiring plenty out of his stuff, for lading it with excessively much significance ; for believing excessively much, for believing excessively small. Obviously John Steinbeck work is complex and does non suit good into a orderly small cast.
Steinbeck saw the universe as holding jobs. He liked to picture these jobs in his narratives. He had a realistic construct of society and he reflected the quality of modern-day American life in his works.1 He dramatized the predicament of adult male as they worked out their jobs with the environment. He felt that adult male should be the donee of his establishments, and non its victim.
Steinbeck did non look to bask public attending and he hated to speak.2 On the topic of public attending, he said:
“ Everything the people admires, it destroys, it imposes a personality on him ( the creative person ) it thinks he should hold. “ 3
On the topic of best Sellerss he had really strong sentiments:
“ I hope that doesn ” T go on to me. A individual best-seller can destroy a author forever, ” and “ I merely can & # 8217 ; t compose books if a consciousness of ego is thrust upon me. ” 3
“ It has ruined everyone I know. “ 1
Among the people who have read his plants, most seem to hold that his best plants were written in the 1930 & # 8217 ; s and 1940 & # 8217 ; s. Many critics say that Steinbeck was a alone American novelist who had a captivation for the land and it & # 8217 ; s people. Throughout his calling, he wrote about the virtuousnesss of the American dream and warned off the immoralities of American society. “ My whole work thrust has been aimed at doing people understand each other. “ 2 John Ernst Steinbeck was one of the most celebrated American writers to hold lived, and his narratives still live with us today.
Bensen, Jackson J. The True Adventures of John Steinbeck. New
York: Writer Penguin Books, 1984.
Gallic, Warren. John Steinbeck. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1961.
Lisca, Peter. The Wide World of John Steinbeck. New
Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
Evory, Ann, erectile dysfunction. Contemporary Authors. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, New Revision series, 1962. Vol.1, pp627-631.
Unger, Leonard, erectile dysfunction. American Writers: a aggregation of literary lifes. New York: Charles Scribner & # 8217 ; s Sons, 1974. Vol.IV, pp49-72.
“ The author & # 8217 ; s reader. ” Harper & # 8217 ; s Magazine, v280, Feb. 1990, p38.
“ The true legislators. ” The Nation, v248, 1 May 1989, p577.
AN AMERICAN AUTHOR
March 16, 1995