Terrorism Essay, Research Paper
Terrorism and the Media “ If the media were non at that place to describe terrorist Acts of the Apostless and to explicate their political and societal significance & # 8230 ; terrorist act as such would discontinue to be, ” said John O & # 8217 ; Sullivan, an editor of the Times of London.1 This is besides the manner many other people feel about the recent addition in terrorist activity ; they feel that the media is doing it. The media is making this by carry throughing the terrorists & # 8217 ; demand for publicity.2 Terrorists need media promotion in order to acquire their positions spread to the public.3 Because of this demand for promotion, terrorists are perpetrating their Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act in countries where a batch of promotion will be gained ; the United States and Western Europe are the most recent marks. The bombardments of the federal edifice in Oklahoma City and the Olympic Centennial Park in Atlanta are current illustrations of terrorists seeking promotion in the United States.4 Terrorists & # 8217 ; demand for promotion has been around for a long clip, but new media engineerings are doing the job to turn faster than ever.5 Terrorism is turning at an impressive rate of 12 to 15 per centum per year.6 The media cause many jobs besides assisting terrorists. They inspire more terrorist act to go on, do terrorist onslaughts to be bigger, cause jobs with governments, and do uneffective Torahs to be passed. To work out these jobs, authorities censoring and self-regulation have been suggested. Government censoring involves the authorities commanding what the media can describe ; there has been controversy over this because it could take away many American freedoms. Self-regulation involves the media commanding themselves. Because of the manner the media are presently covering terrorist events, many serious jobs are happening ; if the media do non voluntarily alter their ways, authorities ordinances could be enacted.7 Although arguments over how to work out the jobs are comparatively new, terrorists & # 8217 ; usage of promotion has been around for many old ages. When a terrorist has promotion as his chief end, he is known as a “ modern ” terrorist ; this type of terrorist act has been around for a long clip, but non until around 1968 was it widely known. Most people connected terrorist act with “ classical ” terrorists. This sort of terrorist act is used in the clip of war ; there is no end of promotion. All they want to make is intimidate the resistance. The FLN in Algeria are labeled as this type of terrorist. They one time killed many of their enemies by bombing a saloon that many of their enemies were in ; this activity shows how classical terrorists intimidate the opposition.8 Even though “ classical ” terrorist act has non changed much, “ modern ” terrorist act has changed greatly over clip. The manner in which terrorists have gained promotion is really different. Late 19th century Southern lynch rabble and Cardinal American decease squads did non even use the media to derive their promotion. They merely used their victims as illustrations to others who might disobey their rules.9 As times changed, terrorists began to publicise their positions in books, booklets, belowground newspapers, etc. This technique allowed them to make a bigger audience. It was largely used by terrorist groups during the 19th and early twentieth centuries. Terrorist groups frequently contained a pressman and a author who together would do certain their positions were publicized ; the groups did non hold to trust on an outside force to publicise for them.10 As new media engineerings were invented, the terrorist groups were able to publicise their positions to a bigger audience than they had of all time imagined possible.11 The lone job was that they could non trust on people in the group to publicise for them ; it would be about impossible for a terrorist group to have a telecasting or wireless station. The lone manner they could acquire a piece of the new engineering was to “ make intelligence. ” This is what most terrorists do today ; they stage an event that will derive intelligence coverage and so seek to acquire their positions publicized by endangering drastic actions.12 This scheme of terrorist act is doing the media to bring forth many serious jobs. One job with the media & # 8217 ; s coverage of terrorist act is that it can animate future Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act. This is called the “ contagious disease hypothesis. “ 13 This is caused largely because the existent Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act normally receive more media attending than the penalties. Peoples merely see the successes of terrorist act, non the effects. If more attending was put on the penalties, it could discourage similar Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act by demoing the effects. In a survey of newspapers in the United States and Europe, it was found “ that stories concentrating on the penalty of terrorists receive less so 5 per centum as many column inches of infinite as narratives refering to the existent offenses with which the terrorists are charged. ” Besides, the incidents were on the front page, while the charges were near the back.14 This factor can be seen in highjackings. They normally occur in “ bunchs ” ; the terrorists see the success of other terrorists and so derive adequate bravery to execute similar onslaughts. A similar consequence can be seen when there is a newspaper work stoppage in San Francisco ; there are fewer self-destructions because people do non acquire thoughts from the normally reported suicides.15 Besides contributing to the enlargement of terrorist activities, the media may besides do the Acts of the Apostless to be bigger. This is called the “ immunisation consequence. ” It can be seen in Robert G. Bell & # 8217 ; s study on skyjackings. He found that a “ impregnation of media coverage led to public apathy robbing the terrorist act of its promotion consequence. “ 16 This is where the populace begins to accept terrorist act because the media show it to them all of the clip. Terrorists so have to try bigger Acts of the Apostless in order to derive attending. Besides, more people get involved in terrorist act because it is more publically accepted than earlier. Another job that changeless media coverage can do is the “ clime of bullying. ” This is where the media & # 8217 ; s coverage of terrorist act causes the populace to fear an attack.17 This happens when the media make terrorists seem stronger than they truly are ; they do this by handling the terrorist like he is person of great importance.18 When the public fear an onslaught near them, they want the authorities to step in and rapidly work out the job. This can do uneffective Torahs to be passed.19 This happened after the bombardment in Oklahoma City. The populace was afraid of another onslaught and wanted the authorities to rapidly happen a solution. This caused President Clinton to press Congress to go through new Torahs, most of which were non even effectual. They passed the Terrorism Prevention Act. The measure did nil but take away rights of normal citizens and stiffen the penalties of the wrongdoers ; the measure would non hold prevented the bombardment in Oklahoma City from occurring.20 Besides doing jobs in the populace, the media cause many jobs with governments. The Hanafi Muslim besieging in Washington, D.C. , is an illustration of this. The media tied up the phone lines that the constabulary needed to negociate with.21 Besides, confidential information was released to the terrorists. They told of employees trapped inside the edifice and of constabulary activity outside the edifice ; this endangered many guiltless lives.22 The media do non ever do jobs with governments, though. The media aid constabulary in the dialogue procedure by supplying the constabulary with a agencies of pass oning with the terrorist. They besides provide governments with important information that they would non be able to get. This happened to the United States during the Persian state of affairs ; their lone manner of having information was through the media. Even though the media can sometimes assist constabulary, most constabularies heads do non like the manner the media cover terrorist act. The 1977 Sommer study said that “ 93 per centum of the constabulary chiefs reacting believed unrecorded telecasting coverage of terrorist Acts of the Apostless encourages terrorist act & # 8230 ; None believed that terrorist Acts of the Apostless should be televised unrecorded. “ 23 The jobs that the media cause demand to be solved, but before solutions can be found, the jobs must be researched.24 If solutions are non found, many lives will be lost at a addition to the terrorists ; terrorists do non care about people & # 8217 ; s lives. They merely want the promotion gained from killing people.25 The attempted blackwash of President Reagan is an illustration of this. The taw, John Hickley, Jr. , said he “ intentionally planned an blackwash before intelligence cameras to win maximal media attending. “ 26 A more recent illustration is “ The Unabomber. ” He used lifelessly bombs to derive attending ; so, he said he would halt merely if he would acquire a book deal.27 Eve
n though research is being done on the jobs that the media cause, research workers have non come to any decisions. For illustration, research workers spend most of their clip analyzing the “ contagious disease consequence, ” but still no decisions have been found.28 Even though really small information has been uncovered on the jobs the media cause, some solutions have been suggested. There are said to be merely two practical solutions to these jobs: authorities censoring and self-regulation. Government censoring is where the authorities decides whether the media can describe a terrorist event.29 Most states, including the United States, have authorities censoring during wars ; this is so no confidential information is released to the enemy and so public disturbance can be avoided.30 Some states, like Yugoslavia, have authorities censoring all of the clip. Recently, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic shut down three wireless Stationss. The Stationss were describing the protests over Milosevic naming the election faithlessly because the resistance might hold won. He did non desire information about the protests to anger any terrorists or other violent people.31 Even though this solution may work in other states, it likely would ne’er be accepted in the United States. This is because it takes off American freedoms that are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, such as the freedoms of address and press.32 Besides, authorities censoring might do the terrorists’ acts to increase in strength in order to derive media attending once more ; it could hold similar effects as the “ immunisation consequence. ” This happened in Palestine during the 1940’s.33 The other pick to work out this job is self-restraint. This is where the media must make up one’s mind for themselves if they should describe a terrorist event. Most media Stationss have “ voluntary guidelines ” that their newsmans should follow to avoid the many jobs they cause. Some of the guidelines are: do studies short and to the point ; avoid unrecorded coverage ; avoid disturbing the governments ; ne’er help the terrorist ; make non demo how the act was done ; avoid let go ofing confidential information ; and demo the penalty more than the act itself. ABC does non stay by these guidelines because they feel they would non be really effective.34 This is because the media industry is really competitory. If one station does non hold the top narrative, it will free its following to a station that does. If one station carries a narrative, the others will follow ; they do non desire to free any money.35 Unless the media start self modulating, they will hold to accept the fact that authorities ordinance is the merely other pick. That means giving up their freedoms of address and press.36 Not happening effectual solutions to these jobs is a really serious job ; if solutions are non found, the figure of terrorist Acts of the Apostless will probably increase in the United States. This state is an easy topographic point for terrorists to derive their much needed media exposure.37 The manner the terrorists seek promotion has changed greatly over clip ; it has changed largely because new media engineerings have been invented. These media engineerings are leting terrorists to make a larger audience than of all time earlier. Because terrorists are now able to make such a big audience through the media, many jobs are caused by media coverage of terrorist events. The media inspire more terrorist act to go on, do terrorist Acts of the Apostless to be bigger, cause jobs with governments, and do uneffective Torahs to be passed. Terrorism and the jobs associated with the media are non merely confined to large metropoliss ; they can strike in any town, irrespective of its size. Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for illustration, has received many bomb menaces in the past few old ages. Many of the menaces were connected to anti-pornography and anti-abortion groups ; the groups were likely seeking to acquire promotion for their causes. Even though they were merely little menaces with pipe bombs, many serious jobs were still caused.38 If the jobs that the media cause are of all time traveling to be solved, the media must make up one’s mind whether to modulate themselves or cover with the effects of authorities ordinance ; these are the lone two picks the media presently have. Before more picks can go available, conclusive research must be done to bring out effectual solutions to the jobs the media cause. Endnotes Bibliography Bassiouni, Cherif M. ( 1983 ) . Problems in Media Coverage of Nonstate-Sponsored Terror-Violence Incidents. In L. Z. Freedman & Y. Alexander ( Eds. ) , Perspectives on Terrorism ( pp. 177-200 ) . Wilmington: Scholarly Resources Inc. Beeman, William O. ( 1986 ) . Stricter Penalties Will Not Eliminate Terrorism. In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism ( pp. 215-217 ) . St. Paul: Greenhaven Press. Chalfont, Lord ( 1986 ) . The Price of Sympathy. In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win ( pp. 126-129 ) . New York: Farrar-Straus-Giroux. “ Eau Claire Plagued With Bomb Threats, ” The Post-Crescent, 2 December 1996, gaps. 2-6, p. B-2. Evans, Ernest, Naming a Armistice to Terror, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1979. “ Contending Terrorism: Make it With Care, ” The Economist, August 1996, p. 26. Graham, Katharine ( 1986 ) . The Media Must Report Terrorism. In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism ( pp. 75-81 ) . St. Paul: Greenhaven Press. Krauthammer, Charles ( 1986 ) . Partners in Crime. In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win ( pp. 111-113 ) . New York: Farrer-Straus-Giroux. Lampham, Lewis H. , “ Seen But Not Heard: The Message of the Oklahoma Bombing, ” Harper’s Magazine, July 1995, pp. 26-36. Livingstone, Neil C. , The War Against Terrorism, Lexington: Lexington Books, 1982. Long, David E. , The Anatomy of Terrorism, New York: The Free Press, 1990. “ Milosevic Shuts Down Independent Radios, ” The Post-Crescent, 4 December 1996, col. 4, p. A-2. Morris, Eric, and Alan Hoe, Terrorism: Threat & Response, Houndmills: Macmillian Press, 1987. O’Sullivan, John ( 1986 ) . Media Publicity Causes Terrorism. In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism ( pp. 69-74 ) . St. Paul: Greenhaven Press. “ Reacting to Terrorism, ” The Economist, August 1996, p. 15. Schorr, Daniel ( 1986 ) . The Encouragement of Violence. In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win ( pp. 114- 116 ) . New York: Farrer-Straus-Giroux. Sederberg, Peter C. , Terrorism Myths, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1989. Taylor, Maxwell, The Terrorist, London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1988. 1 John O’Sullivan, “ Media Publicity Causes Terrorism, ” In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism, p. 69. 2 Neil C. Livingstone, The War Against Terrorism, p. 57. 3 David E. Long, The Anatomy of Terrorism, pp. 118-119. 4 Eric Morris and Alan Hoe, Terrorism: Threat & Response, p. 37. 5 Cherif M. Bassiouni, “ Problems in Media Coverage of Nonstate-Sponsored Terror-Violence Incidents, ” In L. Z. Freedman & Y. Alexander ( Eds. ) , Perspectives on Terrorism, p. 177. 6 William O. Beeman, “ Stricter Penalties Will Not Eliminate Terrorism, ” In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism, p. 216. 7 Livingstone, pp. 63-76. 8 Charles Krauthammer, “ Spouses in Crime, ” In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win, pp. 111-112. 9 Peter C. Sederberg, Terrorist Myths, p. 93. 10 Livingstone, pp. 58-59. 11 Bassiouni, p. 177. 12 Livingstone, pp. 58-59. 13 Bassiouni, p. 184. 14 Livingstone, p. 71. 15 Livingstone, p. 63. 16 Livingstone, p. 69. 17 Bassiouni, pp. 186-188. 18 O’Sullivan, p. 70. 19 Livingstone, pp. 69-70. 20 “ Contending Terrorism: Make it With Care, ” The Economist, August 1996, p. 26. 21 Katharine Graham, “ The Media Must Report Terrorism, ” In D. L. Bender & B. Leone ( Eds. ) , Opposing Point of views: Terrorism, p. 78. 22 Livingstone, p.69. 23 Bassiouni, pp. 196-199. 24 Bassiouni, p. 180. 25 Lord Chalfont, “ The Price of Sympathy, ” In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win, p. 126. 26 Daniel Schorr, “ The Encouragement of Violence, ” In B. Netanyahu ( Ed. ) , Terrorism: How the West Can Win, p. 115. 27 Lewis H. Lapham, “ Seen But Not Heard: The Message of the Oklahoma Bombing, ” Harper’s Magazine, July 1995, p. 30. 28 Bassiouni, pp. 185-186. 29 Livingstone, pp. 72-73. 30 Long, p. 120-121. 31 “ Milosevic Shuts Down Independent Radios, ” The Post-Crescent, 4 December 1996, col. 4, A-2. 32 Long, p. 120. 33 Livingstone, p. 76. 34 Livingstone, pp. 73-74. 35 Long, pp. 119-120. 36 Chalfont, p. 128. 37 Morris and Hoe, p. 37. 38 “ Eau Claire Plagued With Bomb Threats, ” The Post-Crescent, 2 December 1996, gaps. 2-6, p. B-2. ? ?