Test Anxiety Essay, Research Paper
Test AnxietySome pupils bury all that they have learned when they walk into a testing state of affairs. We call this & # 8220 ; test anxiety. & # 8221 ; Psychologists explain & # 8220 ; test anxiousness & # 8221 ; in several different ways, depending on the doctrine of the psychologist who addresses the job. The followers is an scrutiny of how B.F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud, and Abraham Maslow would explicate this upset. A casual expression into the doctrine of Sigmund Freud, helps us understand the complex account he would supply to explicate & # 8220 ; test anxiety. & # 8221 ; Sigmund Freud, the laminitis of depth psychology, developed a theory of personality and psychotherapeutics that emphasized unconscious motivations and struggles within an person. He believed unconscious forces have more power over behavior than consciousness does ( Wade and Tavris 14 ) . Freud believed that three major systems: the Idaho, the self-importance, and the superego, makeup the construction of personality. Human behaviour is the consequence of how these three systems, each individually holding their ain function and foundation, relates to each other ( Freud, 1905b, 1920/1960, 1923/1962 ) . Conflict between these three systems consequences in a crisis, or job in get bying with world ; hence, an single utilizations & # 8220 ; a defence mechanism, methods used by the self-importance to forestall unconscious anxiousness or endangering ideas from come ining consciousness & # 8221 ; ( Wade and Tavris 453 ) . Freud believed that personality develops in five phases, covering the first twelvemonth of life into maturity. & # 8220 ; He called these phases psychosexual because he believed that psychological development depends on the altering look of sexual energy in different parts of the organic structure as the kid matures & # 8221 ; ( Wade and Tavris 455 ) . Freud would explicate & # 8220 ; trial anxiousness, & # 8221 ; in a complicated series of possible causes, effects and consequences, all within the unconscious head. He would get down his analysis by saying inappropriate personality development in the latency phase had occurred. The latency phase occurs from around the age of five ( 5 ) to puberty in an person ; this phase begins when an person has started school and develops assurance ( Wade and Tavris 455-56 ) . Freud would oppugn whether this deficiency of assurance was the root job, or perchance it was simply screening struggles that had occurred in earlier phases. Furthermore, he would explicate, in an effort to protect the person from this undeveloped assurance, or another struggle, defence mechanisms of the self-importance had taken over. Freud would measure defence mechanisms of repression, reaction formation, and possible denial was the consequence of these earlier struggles. The pupil & # 8217 ; s claim he had forgot wholly he had learned ( replies to the trial ) was perchance repression. & # 8220 ; In repression, a baleful thought, memory, or emotion is blocked from going conscious. & # 8221 ; Of class, reaction formation is a possibility. Reaction formation is the feeling that causes unconscious anxiousness to go witting anxiousness ( Wade and Tavris 453 ) . Our pupil claims he studied and knew all the replies before taking the trial. This could be reaction formation, if in fact, the pupil had non studied at all. If Freud analyzed the pupil sing the & # 8220 ; test anxiousness & # 8221 ; exhaustively, we would hear the pupil had undergone arrested development. Regression, Freud believed, is the construction of personality that becomes for good halted, or fixated at the clip a traumatic experience occurs ; a certain mark would be if the pupil was seize with teething his nails ( Wade and Tavris 454 ) . Freud would certainly discourse denial someplace in his rating. He would explicate the pupil is sing struggles between his Idaho, self-importance and superego ; the pupil is protecting the semblance of ever go throughing trials and non accepting heB.F. ( Burrhus Frederic ) Skinner, the best known American Behaviorist ( Wade and Tavris 447 ) , would explicate & # 8220 ; test anxiousness & # 8221 ; rather different from Freud. He would non dig into the past looking for the reply, but would look at what he could detect ; he would analyze the external environment ( Wade and Tavris 14 ) . & # 8220 ; For Skinner, the account of behaviour was to be found by looking outsi
de the person instead than within, a place he continued to support until his decease in 1990.” Skinner felt the environment could and should be manipulated to change behaviour ( Wade and Tavris 255 ) . His account for “test anxiety” would be the pupil uses a self-handicapping scheme. If an person with low self-esteem discoveries himself in a state of affairs where he believes he will be evaluated, he learns to utilize his anxiousness as an alibi for hapless public presentation ( Snyder 1990 ) . “Self-handicappers topographic point obstructions in the way of their ain success. If they so fail, they can fault the failure on the disability alternatively of deficiency of ability” ( Wade and Tavris 447 ) . This would be the student’s claim he wholly forgot all the replies when he went in to take the trial.
Skinner would concentrate on assisting the pupil alter his current behaviour and attitudes instead than endeavoring for an apprehension of why they occur. He might even state our pupil ne’er studied for the trial, or if he did analyze, he did non analyze right or put in adequate clip. Abraham Maslow would take a separate position from Skinner or Freud & # 8217 ; s account of & # 8220 ; test anxiety. & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; Human behaviour, he said, is non wholly determined by either unconscious kineticss or by the environment. Peoples are capable of free will and hence have the ability to do more of themselves than depth psychology ( Freud ) , or behaviourism ( Skinner ) would foretell & # 8221 ; ( Wade and Tavris 19 ) . Abraham Maslow ( 1954/1970 ) , a humanist psychologist, placed people & # 8217 ; s motivational ends on a pyramid that he called hierarchy of demands. His hierarchy of demands was listed harmonizing to importance, with basic demands at the underside and entire fulfilments listed at the top. & # 8220 ; The traits that Maslow thought was the most of import were the qualities of the self-actualized individual, the individual who strives for a life that is meaningful, disputing and exciting. Personality development could be viewed ideally, as a gradual patterned advance toward the province of self-actualization & # 8221 ; ( Wade and Tavris 468 ) . Maslow would experience & # 8220 ; test anxiousness & # 8221 ; was the consequence of our pupil & # 8217 ; s self esteem being frustrated ; self esteem would be a demand lower than accomplishment ; hence, with a lower demand non satisfied, a higher demand like accomplishment would non be come-at-able ( Wade and Tavris 468 ) . He would experience our pupil should get down over, bit by bit working up the ladder, make fulling lower demands first. This gradual ascent would ensue in accomplishing the consequences of cognizing the replies to the trial and non losing them in memory. Maslow would sit with our pupil and discourse the pupil & # 8217 ; s present and future ends ; Maslow would non be concerned with the issues of why and how ; those issues would be irrelevant. He would construct up the ego regard of the pupil and lead him to recognize he can command his ain fate. Sigmund Freud, B.F. Skinner and Abraham Maslow would each explicate & # 8220 ; test anxiousness & # 8221 ; rather otherwise. Freud would believe the reply to apprehension was in the yesteryear. He would look at unconscious forces that were commanding the behaviour of anxiousness from the loss of memory. Skinner would look for his reply in the discernible act. He would non be concerned with the past, but what consequence the environment played on the job in the present. Skinner would look for a more immediate solution that was within the control of the pupil. Maslow, on the other manus, would travel to the hereafter ; what was the end of the pupil? Was he seting to much importance on the trial? Maslow would in kernel be looking at the hereafter, reexamining what had happened that was discernible in the past, but airting the position of the hereafter as keeping the reply. If a pupil experiences & # 8220 ; trial anxiousness, & # 8221 ; burying all that they have learned when they walk into a testing state of affairs, the reply is someplace between Skinner and Maslow. Measuring the state of affairs and candidly replying inquiries that are merely answerable by the pupil can supply a declaration that was simple from the beginning. Excuses for our failures, or inabilities are an easy manner out, instead than being honest and confronting the effects of our actions, larning from our errors.