The Category of Number of English Nouns Essay

& # 1060 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; : & # 1048 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ;

& # 1057 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; : & # 1055 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ;

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& # 1050 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ;

& # 1044 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ;:
& # 1058 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ;
& # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ;

& # 1058 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ;: The Category of Number of English Nouns

& # 1051 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1082 ; 2009

Contentss

Introduction

1. What is Noun?

2. Semantical Features of English Nouns

3. The Class of Number of English Nouns

Decision

Bibliography

Introduction

The subject of my class paper sounds as following: & # 171 ; The figure class of English noun & # 187 ; . Before get downing of probe in our subject, I would wish to state some words dealt with the subject of my class paper.

The noun is a word showing substance in the widest sense of the word. In the construct of substance we include non merely names of life existences ( e.g. male child, miss, bird ) and exanimate things ( e.g. tabular array, chair, book ) , but besides names of abstract impressions, i.e. qualities, slates, actions ( kindness, strength, slumber, fright, conversation, battle ) , abstracted from their carriers. In address these types of nouns are treated in different ways, so one, who does non cognize ways of intervention, can do errors in his address.

Standing on such land, I would wish to indicate out undertakings and purposes of my work

1. The first undertaking of my work is to give definition to term & # 171 ; Noun & # 187 ; .

2. Second undertaking is to depict chief characteristics of English nouns.

3. And the last undertaking is to depict grammatical classs that nouns possesses.

The present class paper consists of four parts: debut, the chief portion, decision and bibliography. Within the debut portion, which includes two points we gave the brief description of our making work ( the first point ) and gave general impression of the word & # 171 ; noun & # 187 ; . The chief portion of our making work includes several points. There we discussed such jobs as definition of nouns, chief characteristics of English nouns, their grammatical classs. In the decision to our making work we tried to pull some consequences from the scientific probes made within the chief portion of our making work. In bibliography portion we mentioned more than 20 beginnings of which were used while roll uping the present work. It includes lingual books and articles covering with the subject, a figure of used lexicons and encyclopaedia and besides some cyberspace beginnings.

1. What is Noun?

The word & # 171 ; noun & # 187 ; comes from the Latin nomen intending & # 171 ; name & # 187 ; . Word classes like nouns were foremost described by Sanskrit grammarian Panini and ancient Greeks like Dionysius Thorax, and defined in footings of their morphological belongingss. For illustration, in Ancient Greece, nouns can be inflected for grammatical instance, such as dative or accusatory. Verbs, on the other manus, can be inflected for tenses, such as past, present or future, while nouns can non. Aristotle besides had a impression of onomata ( nouns ) and rhemata ( verbs ) which, nevertheless, does non precisely match our impressions of verbs and nouns. In her thesis, Vinokurova has a more elaborate treatment of the historical beginning of the impression of a noun.

Expressions of natural linguistic communication will hold belongingss at different degrees. They have formal belongingss, like what sorts of morphologicalprefixes or postfixs they can take, and what sorts of other looks they can unite with. but they besides have semantic belongingss, i.e. belongingss refering to their significance. The definition of nouns on the top of this page is therefore a formal definition. That definition is noncontroversial, and has the advantage that it allows us to efficaciously separate nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvandage that it does non use to nouns in all linguistic communications. For illustration in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one can non specify nouns by agencies of those. There are besides several efforts of specifying nouns in footings of their semantic belongingss. Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below. Expressions of natural linguistic communication will hold belongingss at different degrees. They have formal belongingss, like what sorts of morphologicalprefixes or postfixs they can take, and what sorts of other looks they can unite with. but they besides have semantic belongingss, i.e. belongingss refering to their significance. The definition of nouns on the top of this page is therefore a formal definition. That definition is noncontroversial, and has the advantage that it allows us to efficaciously separate nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvandage that it does non use to nouns in all linguistic communications. For illustration in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one can non specify nouns by agencies of those. There are besides several efforts of specifying nouns in footings of their semantic belongingss. Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below.

In traditional school grammars, one frequently encounters the definition of nouns that they are all and merely those looks that refer to a individual, topographic point, thing, event, substance, quality, or thought, etc. This is a semantic definition. It has been criticized by modern-day linguists as being rather uninformative. Part of the job is that the definition makes usage of comparatively general nouns ( & # 171 ; thing & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; phenomenon & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; event & # 187 ; ) to specify what nouns are. The being of such general nouns shows us that nouns are organized in systematic hierarchies. But other sorts of looks are besides organized in hierarchies. For illustration all of the verbs & # 171 ; amble & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; saunter, & # 187 ; & # 171 ; pace, & # 187 ; and & # 171 ; pace & # 187 ; are more specific words than the more general & # 171 ; walk. & # 187 ; The latter is more specific than the verb & # 171 ; move & # 187 ; / But it is improbable that such hierarchies can be used to specify nouns and verbs. Furthermore, an influential theory has it that verbs like & # 171 ; kill & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; dice & # 187 ; refer to events, and so they fall under the definition. Similarly, adjectives like & # 171 ; yellow & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; hard & # 187 ; might be thought to mention to qualities, and adverbs like & # 171 ; outside & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; upstairs & # 187 ; seem to mention to topographic points. Worse still, a trip into the forests can be referred to by the verbs & # 171 ; amble & # 187 ; or & # 171 ; walk & # 187 ; / But verbs, adjectives and adverbs are non nouns, and nouns are n’t verbs. So the definition is non peculiarly helpful in separating nouns from other parts of address.

Another semantic definition of nouns is that they are prototypically referential. That definition is besides non really helpful in separating existent nouns from verbs. But it may still correctly place a nucleus belongings of noun goon. For illustration, we will be given to utilize nouns like & # 171 ; sap & # 187 ; and & # 171 ; auto & # 187 ; when we wish to mention to saps and autos, severally. The impression that this is archetypal reflects the fact that such nouns can be used, even though nil with the corresponding belongings is referred to:

John is no sap.

If I had a auto, I ‘d travel to Marrakech.

The first sentence above does n’t mention to any saps, nor does the 2nd one refer to any peculiar auto.

In most instances in handling English nouns we shall maintain to the construct of scientists that we refer to post-structural inclination It ‘s because they combine the thoughts of traditional and structural syntacticians. The noun is classified into a separate word & # 8211 ; group because:

1. they all have the same lexical & # 8211 ; grammatical significance:

substance / thing

2. harmonizing to their signifier & # 8211 ; they ‘ve two grammatical classs:

figure and instance

3. they all have typical stem-building elements:

& # 8211 ; er, & # 8211 ; ist, & # 8211 ; ship, & # 8211 ; ment, & # 8211 ; goon & # 8230 ; .

4. typical combinability with other words:

most frequently left-hand combinability.

5. map & # 8211 ; the most characteristic characteristic of nouns is & # 8211 ; they can be observed in all syntactic maps but predicate.

From the grammatical point of position most of import is the division of nouns into denumerable and un-countable with respect to the class of figure and into declinable and indeclinable with respect to the class of instance [ 1 ]
.

2. Semantical Features of English Nouns

Nouns autumn under two categories: ( A ) proper nouns ; ( B ) common nouns [ 2 ]
.

a ) Proper nouns are single, names given to divide individuals or things. As respects their significance proper nouns may be personal names ( Mary, Peter, Shakespeare ) , geographical names ( Moscow, London, the Caucasus ) , the names of the months and of the yearss of the hebdomad ( February, Monday ) , names of ships, hotels, nines, etc.

A big figure of nouns now proper were originally common nouns ( Brown, Smith, Mason ) .

Proper nouns may alter their significance and go common nouns:

& # 171 ; George went over to the tabular array and took a sandwich and a glass of bubbly. ( Aldington )

B ) Common nouns are names that can be applied to any person of ad buttocks of individuals or things ( e.g. adult male, Canis familiaris, book ) , aggregations of similar persons or things regarded as a individual unit ( e. g. peasantry, household ) , stuffs ( e. g. snow, Fe, cotton ) or abstract impressions ( e.g. kindness, development ) .

Therefore there are different groups of common nouns: category nouns, corporate nouns, nouns of stuff and abstract nouns.

1. Class nouns denote individuals or things belonging to a category. They are denumerable and have two. Numberss: singular and plural. They are by and large used with an article.

& # 171 ; Well, sir & # 187 ; , said Mrs. Parker, & # 171 ; I was n’t in the store above a great deal. & # 187 ; ( Mansfield )

He goes to the portion of the town where the stores are. ( Lessing )

2. Corporate nouns denote a figure or aggregation of similar persons or things as a individual unit.

Corporate nouns autumn under the undermentioned groups:

( a ) nouns used merely in the remarkable and denoting-a figure of things collected together and regarded as a individual object: leaf, machinery.

It was non reposeful, that green leaf. ( London )

Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for fixing land. ( Agricultural Gazette )

( B ) nouns which are remarkable in signifier though plural in significance:

constabularies, domestic fowl, cowss, people, aristocracy They are normally called nouns of battalion. When the topic of the sentence is a noun of battalion the verb used as predicate is in the plural:

I had no thought the constabulary were so devilishly prudent. ( Shaw )

Unless cowss are in good status in calving, milk production will ne’er make a high degree. ( Agricultural Gazette )

The conditions was warm and the people were sitting at their doors. ( Dickens )

( degree Celsius ) nouns that may be both remarkable and plural: household, crowd, fleet, state. We can believe of a figure of crowds, fleets or different states every bit good as of a individual crowd, fleet, etc.

A little crowd is lined up to see the invitees arrive. ( Shaw )

Consequently they were shortly afoot, and walking in the way of the scene of action, towards which crowds of people were already pouring from a assortment of quarters. ( Dickens )

3. Nouns of material denote stuff: Fe, gold, paper, tea, H2O. They are uncountable and are by and large used without any article.

There was a aroma of honey from the lime-trees in flower. ( Galsworthy )

There was java still in the urn. ( Wells )

Nouns of stuff are used in the plural to denote different kinds of a given stuff.

& # 8230 ; that his senior counted upon him in this endeavor, and had consigned a measure of choice vinos to him & # 8230 ; ( Thackeray )

Nouns of stuff may turn into category nouns ( therefore going denumerable ) when they come to show an single object of definite form.

Comparison:

& # 8211 ; To the left were clean window glasss of glass. ( Ch. Bronte )

& # 171 ; He came in here, & # 187 ; said the server looking at the visible radiation through the tumbler, & # 171 ; ordered a glass of this ale. & # 187 ; ( Dickens )

But the individual in the glass made a face at her, and Miss Moss went out. ( Mansfield ) .

4. Abstract nouns denote some quality, province, action or thought: kindness, unhappiness, battle. They are normally uncountable, though some of them may be denumerable.

Therefore when the childs saw that female parent looked neither frightened nor offended, they gathered new bravery. ( Dodge )

Accustomed to John Reed ‘s maltreatment & # 8211 ; I ne’er had an thought of providing it. ( Ch. Bronte )

It ‘s these people with fixed thoughts. ( Galsworthy )

Abstract nouns may alter their significance and go category nouns. This alteration is marked by the usage of the article and of the plural figure:

beauty a beauty beauties

sight a sight sights

He was antiphonal to beauty and here was cause to react. ( London )

She was a beauty. ( Dickens )

& # 8230 ; but she is n’t one of those horrid regular beauties. ( Aldington )

3. The Class of Number of English Nouns

The class of figure of English nouns is the system of antonyms ( such as miss & # 8211 ; misss, pes & # 8211 ; pess, etc. ) demoing whether the noun bases for one object or more than one, in other words, whether its grammatical significance is ‘oneness ‘ or ‘more-than-oneness ‘ of objects.

The connexion of the class with the universe of stuff world, though indirect, is rather crystalline. Its significances reflect the being of single objects and groups of objects in the material universe.

All figure antonyms are indistinguishable in content: they contain two peculiar significances of ‘singular ‘ and ‘plural ‘ united by the general significance of the class, that of ‘number ‘ . But there is a considerable assortment of signifier in figure antonyms, though it is non so great as in the Russian linguistic communication.

An English noun lexeme can incorporate two figure antonyms at most ( plaything & # 8211 ; male childs, male child ‘s & # 8211 ; male childs ‘ ) . Many lexemes have but one oppose me ( table & # 8211 ; tabular arraies ) and many others have no antonyms at all ( ink, intelligence ) .

In the opposite male child & # 8211 ; boys ‘singularity ‘ is expressed by a nothing morpheme and ‘plurality ‘ is marked by the positive morpheme /-z/ , in spelling & # 8211 ; .s. In other words, the ‘singular ‘ member of the antonym is non marked, and the ‘plural ‘ member is marked.

In the opposite male child ‘s & # 8211 ; male childs ‘ both members have positive morphemes & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ; s, & # 8211 ; s & # 8217 ; , but these morphemes can be distinguished merely in composing. In the spoken linguistic communication their signifiers do non differ, so with respect to each other they are unmarked. They can be distinguished merely by their combinability ( californium. a male child ‘s caput, boys ‘ caputs ) .

In a few noun lexemes of foreign origin both members of a figure antonym are marked, e.g. symposium & # 8211 ; symposia, genus & # 8211 ; genera, phenomenon & # 8211 ; phenomena, etc. But in the procedure of assimilation this distinctive feature of foreign nouns gets bit by bit lost, and alternatively of medium & # 8211 ; media a new opposite develops, medium & # 8211 ; mediums ; alternatively of expression & # 8211 ; expression, the usual signifier now is formula & # 8211 ; expressions. In this procedure, as we see, the foreign grammatical morphemes are neglected as such. The & # 8216 ; plural & # 8217 ; morpheme is dropped wholly. The ‘singular ‘ morpheme becomes portion of the root. Finally, the regular & # 8211 ; s stoping is added to organize the ‘plural ‘ antonym. As a consequence the ‘singular ‘ becomes unmarked, as typical of English, and the ‘plural ‘ gets its usual grade, the postfix & # 8211 ; s.

Since the ‘singular ‘ member of a figure antonym is non marked, the signifier of the antonym is, as a regulation, determined by the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme, which, in its bend, depends upon the root of the lexeme.

In the overpowering bulk of instances the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is /-s/ , /-z/ , or /-z/ , in spelling & # 8211 ; ( vitamin E ) s, e. g, books, male childs, lucifers.

With the root ox & # 8211 ; the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is & # 8211 ; en /-n/ .

In the opposite adult male & # 8211 ; work forces the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is the vowel alteration / & # 230 ; & gt ; e/ . In adult female & # 8211 ; adult females ii is /u & gt ; i/ , in pes & # 8211 ; pess it is /u & # 8211 ; I: / , etc.

In kid & # 8211 ; kids the signifier of the ‘plural ‘ morpheme is complicated. It consists of the vowel alteration /ai & gt ; i/ and the postfix & # 8211 ; ren.

In sheep & # 8211 ; sheep the ‘plural ‘ is non marked, therefore co-occuring in signifier with the ‘singular ‘ . They can be distinguished merely by their combinability: & # 8216 ; one sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; five sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; a sheep was & # 8230 ; & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; sheep were & # 8230 ; & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; this sheep & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; these sheep & # 8217 ; . The ‘plural ‘ coincides in signifier with the ‘singular ‘ besides in & # 8216 ; cervid, fish, carp, perch, trout, pod, salmon & # 8217 ; , etc. [ 3 ]

All the ‘plural ‘ signifiers enumerated here are signifiers of the same morpheme. This can be proved, as we know, by the individuality of the ‘plural ‘ significance, and the complementary distribution of these signifiers, i.e. the fact that different signifiers are used with different roots.

As already mentioned [ 4 ]
, with respect to the class of figure English nouns fall into two subclasses: denumerable and uncountable. The former have figure antonyms, the latter have non. Uncountable nouns are once more subdivided into those holding no plural antonyms and those holding no remarkable antonyms.

Nouns like milk, geometry, self-control holding no plural antonyms are normally called by a Latin name & # 8211 ; singularia tantum. Nouns like outskirts, apparels, goods holding no remarkable antonyms are known as pluralia tantum.

As a affair of fact, those nouns which have no figure antonyms are outside the grammatical class of figure. But on the analogy of the majority of English nouns they get oblique ( or lexicon-grammatical ) significances of figure. Therefore singularia tantum are frequently treated as singulars and pluralia tantum as plurals.

This is justified both by their signifiers and by their combinability.

Cf. This ( table, book, milk, love ) is & # 8230 ;

These ( tabular arraies, books, apparels, goods ) are & # 8230 ;

When combinability and organize contradict each other, combinability is decisive, which accounts for the fact that & # 8216 ; police & # 8217 ; or & # 8216 ; cattle & # 8217 ; are regarded as plurals, and & # 8216 ; rubeolas & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; mathematics as singulars.

The lexicon-grammatical significance of a category ( or of a subclass ) of words is, as we know, an abstraction from the lexical significances of the words of the category, and depends to a certain extent on those lexical significances. Therefore singularia tantum normally include nouns of certain lexical significances. They are largely material, abstract and corporate nouns, such as sugar, gold, butter, glare, stability, selfishness, humanity, military personnel, peasantry.

Yet it is non every stuff, abstract or corporate noun that belongs to the group of singularia tantum ( e. g. a plastic, a feeling, a crowd ) and, what is more of import, non in all of its significances does a noun belong to this group.

As we have already seen [ 5 ]
, discrepancies of the same lexeme may belong to different subclasses of a portion of address. In most of their significances the words joy and sorrow as abstract nouns are singularia tantum.

E.g. He has been a good friend both in joy and in s & # 1086 ; R & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; w. ( Horney ) .

But when concrete manifestations are meant, these nouns are denumerable and have plural antonyms, e. g. the joys and sorrows of life.

Similarly, the words Cu, Sn, hair as stuff nouns are normally singularia tantum, but when they denote concrete objects, they become denumerable and acquire plural antonyms: a Cu & # 8211 ; Cus, a Sn & # 8211 ; Sns, a hair & # 8211 ; hairs.

Similarly, when the nouns vino, steel, salt denote some kind or assortment of the substance, they become denumerable.

E.g. an expensive vino & # 8211 ; expensive vinos.

All such instances are non a distinctive feature of the English linguistic communication entirely. They are found in other linguistic communications as good. Cf. & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 8211 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; and & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; .is a material noun, & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 8211 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; and & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; as a corporate noun.

& # 8216 ; Joy & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a joy & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; beauty & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a beauty & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; Cu & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a Cu & # 8217 ; , & # 8216 ; hair & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; a hair & # 8217 ; and many other braces of this sort are non homonyms, as suggested by some syntacticians [ 6 ]
, but discrepancies of lexemes related by internal transition.

If all such instances were regarded as homonyms, the figure of homonyms in the English linguistic communication would be practically illimitable. If merely some of them were treated as homonyms, that would give rise to uncontrolled subjectiveness.

The group of pluralia tantum is largely composed of nouns denoting objects dwelling of two or more parts, complex phenomena or ceremonials, e. g. tongs, tweezers, pants, weddings, obsequies. Here besides belong some nouns with a distinguishable collective or stuff significance, e.g. apparels, eaves, Sweets.

Since in these words the & # 8211 ; s postfix does non work as a grammatical morpheme, it gets lexicalized and develops into an inseparable portion of the root [ 7 ]
. This, likely, underlies the fact that such nouns as mathematics, optics, linguistics, epidemic parotitiss, rubeolas are treated as singularia tantum.

Nouns like constabulary, reserves, cowss, domestic fowl are pluralia tantum, judging by their combinability, though non by signifier [ 8 ]
.

Peoples in the significance of & # 171 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 187 ; is a denumerable noun. In the significance of & # 171 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 187 ; it belongs to the pluralia tantum. Family in the sense of & # 171 ; a group of people who are related & # 187 ; is a denumerable noun. In the significance of & # 171 ; single members of this group & # 187 ; it belongs to the pluralia tantum. Therefore, the lexeme household has two discrepancies:

Sg. PL

1 ) household households

2 ) & # 8211 ; household

E. g. Almost every household in the small town has sent a adult male to the ground forces. ( Horney ) .

Those were the oldest households in Jorkshire. ( Black ) .

Her household were of a delicate fundamental law. ( Bronte ) .

Similar discrepancies are observed in the lexemes commission, authorities, board, crew, etc.

Coloring material in the significance & # 171 ; red, green, bluish, etc & # 187 ; . is a denumerable noun. In the significance & # 171 ; visual aspect of world or truth & # 187 ; ( e. g. His lacerate apparels gave coloring material to his narrative that prevarication had been attacked by robbers. A. Horney. ) it has no plural antonym and belongs to the singularia tantum. Colours in the sense of & # 171 ; stuffs used by painters and creative persons & # 187 ; has no remarkable antonym and belongs to the pluralia tantum.

Therefore, the lexeme has three discrepancies:

Sg. Pl.

1 ) coloring material colors

2 ) coloring material & # 8211 ;

3 ) & # 8211 ; colorss.

When syntacticians write that the lexical significances of some plurals differ from those of their remarkable antonyms [ 9 ]
, they merely compare different discrepancies of a lexeme.

Sometimes discrepancies of a lexeme may belong to the same lexico-grammatical subclass and yet hold different signifiers of figure opposemes.

Cf. brother ( boy of same parents ) & # 8211 ; brothers

brother ( fellow member ) & # 8211 ; brethren

fish & # 8211 ; fish ( e.g. I caught five fish yesterday. )

fish & # 8211 ; fishes ( ‘different species ‘ , e. g. ocean fishes ) .

A corporate noun is a word that designates a group of objects or existences regarded as a whole, such as & # 171 ; flock & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; squad & # 187 ; , or & # 171 ; corporation & # 187 ; . Although many linguistic communications treat corporate nouns as remarkable, in others they may be interpreted as plural. In British English, phrases such as the commission are run intoing are common ( the alleged understanding in sensu & # 171 ; in intending & # 187 ; , that is, with the significance of a noun, instead than with its signifier ) . The usage of this type of building varies with idiom and degree of formality.

All linguistic communications are able to stipulate the measure of referents. They may make so by lexical agencies with words such as English a few, some, one, two, five hundred. However, non every linguistic communication has a grammatical class of figure. Grammatical figure is expressed by morphological and/or syntactic agencies. That is, it is indicated by certain grammatical elements, such as through affixes or figure words. Grammatical figure may be thought of as the indicant of semantic figure through grammar.

Languages that express measure merely by lexical agencies lack a grammatical class of figure. For case, in Khmer, neither nouns nor verbs carry any grammatical information refering figure: such information can merely be conveyed by lexical points such as khlah ‘some ‘ , pii-bey ‘a few ‘ , and so on.

Most linguistic communications of the universe have formal agencies to show differences of figure. The most widespread differentiation, as found in English and many other linguistic communications, involves a simple bipartisan figure contrast between remarkable and plural ( auto / autos ; child / kids, etc. ) . Other more luxuriant systems of figure are described below.

The semantic nature of the difference between remarkable and plural may show some troubles of reading.

On the surface of semantic dealingss, the significance of the singular will be understood as merely “ one ” , as opposed to the significance of the plural as “ many ” in the sense of “ more than one ” . This is seemingly obvious for such correlativities as book
& # 8212 ; books, lake
& # 8212 ; lakes
and the similar. However, alongside of these semantically univocal correlativities, there exist plurals and singulars that can non be to the full accounted for by the above ready-made attack. This becomes clear when we take for comparing such signifiers as tear
( one bead falling from the oculus ) and cryings
( golden syrups on the cheeks as items of heartache or joy ) , murphy
( one point of the veggies ) and murphies
( nutrient ) , paper
( stuff ) and documents
( notes or paperss ) , sky
( the vault of Eden ) and skies
( the same sky taken as a direct or nonliteral background ) , etc. As a consequence of the comparing we conclude that the broader sememic grade of the plural, or “ plurality ” in the grammatical sense, should be described as the potentially dismembering contemplation of the construction of the referent, while the sememic grade of the singular will be understood as the non-dismembering contemplation of the construction of the referent, i.e. the presentation of the referent in its indivisible entirety.

It is sometimes stated that the plural signifier randomly presents both multiplicity of separate objects ( “ discrete ” plural, e.g. three houses )
and multiplicity of units of step for an indivisible object ( “ plural of step ” , e.g. three hours )
[ Ilyish, 36 ff. ] . However, the difference here lies non in the content of the plural as such, but in the quality of the objects themselves. Actually, the singulars of the several nouns differ from one another precisely on the same lines as the plurals do { cf. one house
& # 8212 ; one hr ) .

On the other manus, there are semantic assortments of the plural signifiers that differ from one another in their plural quality as such. Some differentiations of this sort were shown supra. Some farther differentiations may be seen in a assortment of other instances. Here belong, for illustration, instances where the plural signifier expresses a definite set of objects { eyes
of the face, wheels
of the vehicle, etc. ) , assorted types of the referent { vinos, tees, steels ) ,
strength of the presentation of the thought { old ages and old ages, 1000s upon 1000s ) ,
picturesqueness { littorals, Waterss, snows ) .
The utmost point of this semantic graduated table is marked by the lexicalization of the plural signifier, i.e. by its helping as a agency of rendering non specificational, but strictly fanciful difference in significance. Cf. colorss
as a “ flag ” , attendings
as “ courting ” , strivings
as “ attempt ” , quarters
as “ residence ” , etc.

The range of the semantic differences of the plural signifiers might present before the perceiver a inquiry whether the class of figure is a variable grammatical class at all.

The reply to the inquiry, though, does n’t go forth infinite or any uncertainness: the class of figure is one of the regular variable classs in the grammatical system of he English linguistic communication. The variableness of the class is merely given in its signifier, i.e. in the signifiers of the majority of English nouns which do separate it by agencies of the described binary paradigm. As for the differences in significance, these arise from the interaction between the underlying oppositional sememic Markss of the class and the more concrete lexical differences in the semantics of single words.

The most general quantitative features of single words constitute the lexico-grammatical base for spliting the nounal vocabulary as a whole into denumerable nouns and uncountable nouns. The changeless categorial characteristic “ quantitative construction ” ( see Ch. V, & # 167 ; 3 ) is straight connected with the variable characteristic “ figure ” , since uncountable nouns are treated grammatically as either remarkable or plural. Namely, the remarkable uncountable nouns are modified by the non-discrete quantifiers much
or small,
and they take the finite verb in the singular, while the plural uncountab

le nouns take the finite verb in the plural.

The two subclasses of uncountable nouns are normally referred to, severally, as singularia tantum ( merely singular ) and pluralia tantum ( merely plural ) . In footings of resistances we may state that in the formation of the two subclasses of uncountable nouns the figure resistance is “ invariably ” ( lexically ) reduced either to the weak member ( singularia tantum ) or to the strong member ( pluralia tantum ) .

Since the grammatical signifier of the uncountable nouns of the singularia tantum subclass is non excluded from the class of figure, it stands to ground to talk of it as the “ absolute ” singular, as different from the “ correlate ” or “ common ” singular of the denumerable nouns. The absolute singular excludes the usage of the modifying numerical one,
every bit good as the indefinite article.

The absolute singular is characteristic of the names of abstract impressions { peace, love, joy, bravery, friendly relationship,
etc. ) , the names of the subdivisions of professional activity { chemical science, architecture, mathematics, linguistics,
etc. ) , the names of mass-materials { H2O, snow, steel, hair,
etc. ) , the names of corporate inanimate objects { leaf, fruit, furniture, machinery,
etc. ) . Some of these words can be used in the signifier of the common singular with the common plural opposite number, but in this instance they come to intend either different kinds of stuffs, or separate concrete manifestations of the qualities denoted by abstract nouns, or concrete objects exhibiting the several qualities. Cf. :

Joy
is perfectly necessary for normal human life. & # 8212 ; It was a joy
to see her among us. Helmets for motor-cycling are presents made of plastics alternatively of steel.
& # 8212 ; Using different alterations of the described method, super-strong steels
are produced for assorted intents.

The lexicalizing consequence of the correlate figure signifiers ( both singular and plural ) in such instances is apparent, since the categorial constituent of the referential significance in each of them is changed from uncountability to countability. Therefore, the oppositional decrease is here nullified in a peculiarly lexicalising manner, and the full oppositional force of the class of figure is rehabilitated.

Common figure with uncountable remarkable nouns can besides be expressed by agencies of uniting them with words demoing distinctness, such as spot, piece, point, kind. Cf. :

The last two points of intelligence
were quite sensational. Now I ‘d wish to add one more spot of information.
You might every bit good dispense with one or two pieces of furniture
in the hall.

This sort of rendering the grammatical significance of common figure with uncountable nouns is, in due situational conditions, so regular that it can be regarded as particular suppletivity in the categorial system of figure ( see Ch. III, & # 167 ; 4 ) .

On the other manus, the absolute singular, by manner of functional oppositional decrease, can be used with denumerable nouns. In such instances the nouns are taken to show either the corresponding abstract thoughts, or else the significance of some mass-material correlated with its denumerable referent. Cf. :

Walk-in
is a lovely dance. There was dead desert
all around them. The refugees needed shelter.
Have we got poulets
for the 2nd class?

Under this header ( viz. , the first of the above two subpoints ) comes besides the generic usage of the singular. Cf. :

Man ‘s
immortality lies in his workss. Wild elephant
in the Jungle can be really unsafe.

In the domain of the plural, similarly, we must recognize the common plural signifier as the regular characteristic of countability, and the absolute plural signifier peculiar to the uncountable subclass of pluralia tantum nouns. The absolute plural, as different from the common plural, can non straight combine with numbers, and merely on occasion does it unite with distinct quantifiers ( many, few,
etc. ) .

The absolute plural is characteristic of the uncountable nouns which denote objects dwelling of two halves ( pants, scissors, tongs, eyeglassess,
etc. ) , the nouns showing some kind of corporate significance, i.e. rendering the thought of indefinite plurality, both concrete and abstract ( supplies, outskirts, apparels, slivers ; newss, net incomes, contents, political relations ; constabularies, cowss, domestic fowl,
etc. ) , the nouns denoting some diseases every bit good as some unnatural provinces of the organic structure and head ( rubeolas, rachitiss, epidemic parotitiss, creeps, hysterics,
etc. ) . As is seen from the illustrations, from the point of position of figure as such, the absolute plural signifiers can be divided into set absolute plural ( objects of two halves ) and non-set absolute plural ( the remainder ) .

The set plural can besides be distinguished among the common plural signifiers, viz. , with nouns denoting fixed sets of objects, such as eyes
of the face, legs
of the organic structure, legs
of the tabular array, wheels
of the vehicle, funnels
of the steamboat, Windowss
of the room, etc.

The necessity of showing definite Numberss in instances of uncountable pluralia tantum nouns, every bit good as in instances of denumerable nouns denoting objects in fixed sets, has brought about different suppletive combinations specific to the plural signifier of the noun, which exist alongside of the suppletive combinations specific to the remarkable signifier of the noun shown above. Here belong collocations with such words as brace, set, group, clump
and some others. Cf. :
a brace of tweezers ; three braces of bathing short pantss ; a few groups of constabularies ; two sets of die ; several instances of rubeolas ; etc.

The absolute plural, by manner of functional oppositional decrease, can be represented in denumerable nouns holding the signifier of the singular, in uncountable nouns holding the signifier of the plural, and besides in denumerable nouns holding the signifier of the plural.

The first type of decrease, dwelling in the usage of the absolute plural with denumerable nouns in the remarkable signifier, concerns corporate nouns, which are thereby changed into “ nouns of battalion ” . Cf. :

The household
were gathered round the tabular array. The authorities
are consentaneous in disapproving the move of the resistance.

This signifier of the absolute plural may be called “ multitude plural ” .

The 2nd type of the described oppositional decrease, dwelling in the usage of the absolute plural with uncountable nouns in the plural signifier, concerns instances of stylistic marker of nouns. Therefore, the oppositional decrease consequences in expressive heterotaxy. Cf. : the littorals of the desert ; the snows of the Arctic ; the Waterss of the ocean ; the fruits of the labor ; etc,

This assortment of the absolute plural may be called “ descriptive uncountable plural ” .

The 3rd type of oppositional decrease concerns common denumerable nouns used in repeat groups. The acquired deduction is indefinitely big measure intensely presented. The nouns in repeat groups may themselves be used either in the plural ( “ featured ” signifier ) or in the singular ( “ unfeatured ” signifier ) . Cf. :

There were trees and trees
all around us. I lit coffin nail after coffin nail.

This assortment of the absolute plural may be called “ repeat plural ” . It can be considered as a curious analytical signifier in the fringy domain of the class of figure.

As already mentioned, plural and remarkable nouns stand in contrast as diametrically opposite. Cases are non few, nevertheless, when their resistance comes to be neutralised. And this is to state that there are instances when the numeral distinction appears to be of no importance at all. Here belong many corporate abstract and stuff nouns. If, for case, we look at the significance of corporate nouns, we can non neglect to see that they denote at the same clip a plurality and a unit. They may be said to be double countables and therefore from a logical point of position form the exact contrast to mass nouns: they are, in fact, at the same clip remarkable and plural, while mass words are logically neither. The double-sidedness of corporate nouns weakens the resistance and leads to the development of either Pluralia tantum, as in: weeds
( in a garden ) , ashes, coals,
etc. , or Singularia tantum, as in: wildfowl, clergy, leaf,
etc.

ComparetheUkrainian: & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; , & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1110 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1110 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; . SimilarlyinRussian: & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; . German: Eltern, Geschwister, Zwillinge & # 8212 ; Pluralia tantum ; das Gefl & # 252 ; gel, das Wild, das Obst & # 8212 ; Singularia tantum. Similar developments may be traced in Gallic: lupus erythematosuss pois, les & # 233 ; pinards, lupus erythematosuss asperges.

In some instances usage fluctuates, and the two signifiers are interchangeable, e. g. encephalon
or encephalons: he has no encephalons
or small encephalons ; commissariats
is more common than victual ; oats
than oat ;
likewise: His rewards were high. How much rewards does he acquire? That is a just pay. They could non take excessively much strivings.

The double nature of corporate nouns is shown linguistically in assorted ways: by the figure of the verb or by the pronoun mentioning to it, as for case, My household are early risers, they are already here. Cf. My household is non big.

It is of import to detect that the pick between remarkable and plural depends on the significance attached to the noun. Compare besides: We have much fruit this twelvemonth
and The rich fruits of the epic labor of Soviet people are seeable from all the corners of the Earth.

Similarly: The football squad is playing really good. Cf. The football squad are holding bath and are coming back here for tea.

A word should be said about stylistic heterotaxies of remarkable nouns in instances like the undermentioned: trees in foliage, to hold a acute oculus, blue of oculus, strong of musculus.
Forms of this sort will represent synecdoche & # 8212 ; the simplest instance of metonymy in grammar ( “ pars pro toto ” ) .

The Germans won the triumphs. By God they were soldiers.The Old Hun was a soldier.
But they were cooked excessively. They were all cooked…The Hun would come down
through the Trentino, and cut the railroad at the Vicenza and so where would the Italians be?
( Hemingway )

The fellow was so large now that he was at that place about all his clip, like someimmoveable, sardonic, humourous oculus
nil to worsen of work forces and things.
( Galsworthy )

Californium
.
& # 1044 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; . & # 1044 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; . & # 1059 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; . & # 1048 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1079 ; .
( & # 1051 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; )

Other “ universals ” in showing plurality will be found in what may be called “ augmentative ” plurals, i. e. when the plural signifiers of stuff nouns are used to denote big sums of substance, or a high grade of something. This is frequently the instance when we see the affair as it exists in nature. Such plural signifiers are frequently used for stylistic intents in literary prose and poesy, vitamin E. g. : the bluish Waterss of the Mediterranean, the littorals of the Sahara Desert, the snows of Kilimanjaro.

SimilarlyinRussian: & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; .

& # 1045 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; ,

& # 1040 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; . ( & # 1058 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; )

& # 1051 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; . ( & # 1060 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; )

Ukrainian: & # 1057 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1110 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; .

Cf.
Gallic: lupus erythematosuss eaux, les sables ;

German: dice S & # 228 ; nde, die W & # 228 ; sser.

Attention must besides be drawn to the affectional usage of plural signifiers of abstract verbal nouns in pictural linguistic communication:

… it wasa 1000 commiserations
he had run off with that foreign miss
& # 8212 ; a governess excessively!
( Galsworthy )

The expression on her face, such as he had ne’er seen there earlier, such as she had ever hidden from him was full of secretbitternesss,
andyearnings,

and frights.
( Mitchell )

The curious expression came into Bosinney ‘s face which marked all hisenthusiasms.
( Galsworthy )

Her face was white and labored but her eyes were steady and sweet and full of commiseration and unbelief. There was a aglow repose in them and the artlessness in the soft browndeepnesss
struck him like a blow in the face, uncluttering some of the intoxicant out of his encephalon, holding his mad, careering words in mod-flight.
( Mitchell )

He stood for a minute looking down at the field, cordate face with its long window ‘s extremum and serious dark eyes. Such an unwordly face, a face with nodefences
against life.
( Mitchell )

Oh! Wilfrid hasemotions, hatreds, commiserations, wants ;
at least, sometimes ; when he does, his material is reasonably good. Otherwise, he merely makes a vocal about nil
& # 8212 ; like the remainder.
( Galsworthy )

It should be noted, in passing, that the plural signifier is sometimes used non merely for accent in pictural linguistic communication but to escalate the aspective significance of the verb, the iterative character of the action, in peculiar, e. g. :

Oh, this was merely the sort of problem she had feared would come upon them. All the work of this last twelvemonth would travel for nil. All herbattles
andfrights
andlabors
in rain and cold had been wasted.
( Mitchell )

Relentless and stealthy, the pantryman pursued hislabors
taking things from the assorted compartments of the sideboard.
( Galsworthy )

The little Moon had shortly dropped down, and
May dark had failed soft and warm, enveloping with its grape-bloom coloring material and its aromas the billion impulses, machinations, passions, yearnings, and declinations of work forces and adult females. ( Galsworthy )

The affectional usage of proper nouns in plural is besides an effectual agencies of expressive intension, e. g. :

Fleur, tilting out of her window, heard the hall clock ‘s dull bell of 12, the bantam splash of a fish, the sudden shaking of an aspen ‘s foliages in the whiffs of zephyr that rose along the river, the distant rumbling of a dark train, and clip and once more the sounds which none can set a name to in the darkness, soft vague looks of uncatalogued emotions from adult male and animal, bird and machine, or, may be, fromdeparted Forsytes, Darties, Cardigans,
taking dark ambles back into a universe which had one time suited their corporal liquors.
( Galsworthy )

Expressive intension is peculiarly strong in the metaphoric usage of the plural of nouns denoting things to be considered alone, e. g. : Ahead of them was a tunnel of fire where edifices were blazing on either side of the short, narrow street that led down to the railway paths. They plunged into it. A blaze brighter thana twelve Sun
dazzled their eyes, scroching heat seared their teguments and the boom, crepitating and crashing round upon ears in painful moving ridges.
( Mitchell )

Compare the undermentioned illustration in Gallic:

Leon: …
& # 8212 ; Quelquefois… j’y reste… a regarder lupus erythematosus soleil couchant.

Emma:
& # 8212 ; Je ne trouve rien d’admirable commelessoleils couchants…
mais & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; bord de la mer, surtout. 1

Very frequently the plural signifier, besides its specific significance may besides retain the exact significance of the singular, which consequences in homonymy.

1 ) usage
= wont, imposts
= 1 ) plural of wont

2 ) responsibilities

2 ) coloring material
=
shade, colorss
= 1 ) plural ofshade

2 ) flag

3 ) consequence
= consequence, effects
= 1 ) consequences

2 ) goods and movables

4 ) mode
= manner or manner, manners
= 1 ) manners, ways

2 ) behavior

5 ) figure
=
a entire sum of units, Numberss
= 1 ) in numbering

2 ) poesy

6 ) hurting
=
agony, strivings
= 1 ) plural of enduring

2 ) attempt

7 ) premiss
= a statement or proposition, premises
=

1 ) propositions

2 ) environing to a house

8 ) one-fourth
= a 4th portion, quarters
= 1 ) 4th parts

2 ) diggingss There are besides dual plurals used with some difference of significances:

1 ) brother
1 ) brothers
( boies of one female parent )

2 ) brethren
( members of one community )

2 ) mastermind
1 ) masterminds
( work forces of mastermind )

2 ) mastermind
( liquors )

3 ) fabric
1 ) fabrics
( sorts of fabric )

2 ) apparels
( articles of frock )

4 ) index
1 ) indexes
( tabular arraies of contents )

2 ) indices
( in mathematics )

Double plurals with the distinction of significance will be found in other linguistic communications.

Ukrainian:

& # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 8212 ;

1 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1080 ;

2 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; ‘ & # 1103 ;

& # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 8212 ;

1 ) & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1103 ;

2 ) & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ;

Californium
.
Russian:

& # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 8212 ; 1 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; ( & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; )

2 ) & # 1079 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; ( & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1099 ; )
& # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 8212 ;

1 ) & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; ( & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; )

2 ) & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1099 ; ( & # 1073 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; )
& # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 8212 ; 1 ) & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ;

2 ) & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; ( & # 171 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 187 ; )
& # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 8212 ; 1 ) & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; ( & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; )

2 ) & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; (
& # 1079 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ;
)
There are some plurals which have been borrowed from foreign nouns:

Remarkable Plural
Latin
agenda docket
data point informations
pronouncement pronouncement
misprint misprints
memoranda memorandum
medium media
stratum strata
focal point focal point
expression expression
fungus Fungis
genus genera
axis axes
appendix appendices
series series
species species
Remarkable Plural
Grecian
analysis analyses
footing bases
crisis crises
hypothesis hypotheses
parenthesis parentheses
thesis theses
phenomenon phenomena
standard standards
Remarkable Plural
Gallic
boyfriend boyfriend
( or boyfriend )
agency agency
Monsieur Monsieurs
madame mesdames

Mention should be made in this connexion of nouns which have two parallel discrepancies in the plural precisely likewise in map but different in their stylistic domain of application, e. g. :

cow
& # 8212 ; cattles
and cattle ( arch. ,
now chiefly poetic )

enemy
& # 8212 ; enemies
and fone ( arch. )

shoe
& # 8212 ; places
and shoen ( arch. )

Unproductive antediluvian elements are sometimes used to make the ambiance of elevated address. This may besides be traced in other linguistic communications. Compare the Russian:

& # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 8212 ; 1 ) & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; ;

2 ) & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; ( e. g. : & # 1089 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; ) .

Morphologic fluctuation will be found in nouns foreign in beginning. Through the natural procedure of assimilation some borrowed nouns have developed parallel native signifiers, as in:

expression
& # 8212 ; expression, expressions terminus
& # 8212 ; end point, terminuses focal point
& # 8212 ; focal point, focuses stratum
& # 8212 ; strata, stratums

Foreign plurals are unquestionably more studious than the native 1s.

For all the inside informations refering the grammatical administration of nouns and their patterning in different sort of constructions pupils are referred to the text-books on English grammar. Two things should be noted here.

It is of import to detect that in certain contexts nouns can weaken their significance of “ substance ” and approach adjectives therefore doing the thought of qualities of the given substance predominantin the talker ‘s head. Nouns working in this place are by and large modified by adverbials of grade, e. g. :

“ You were evermore of a realist
than Jon ; and ne’er so guiltless ” .
( Galsworthy )

“ We ‘re all fond of you ”
,
he said, “ If you ‘d merely ”
& # 8212 ; he was traveling to state, “ act yourself ”
,
but changed it to
& # 8212 ; “ if
you ‘d merely bemore of a married woman
to him ” .
( Galsworthy )

“ Why had he of all time beensap adequate
to see her once more ”
.
( Galsworthy )

“ Not much of an animate being,

is it? ” groaned Rhett. “ Looks like he ‘ll decease. But he is the best I could happen in the shafts ”
.
( Mitchell )

The usage of a noun instead than an adjectival is really frequently preferred as a more physical expressive agencies to escalate the given quality. Compare the undermentioned synonymic signifiers of look:

He was rather a success.
& # 8212 ; He was rather successful.

It was good merriment.
& # 8212 ; It was amusing.

And here are exemplifying illustrations of nouns weakening their significance of “ substance ” and nearing adverbs.

Such adverbial usage shows great diverseness. Deep-rooted in English grammar, this usage is most idiosyncratic in its nature. We find here forms of different structural significance:

a ) adverbial dealingss of clip, as in: life long, hebdomad long, age long,
etc. ;

B ) adverbial dealingss of comparing: straw yellow, Ag Grey, ash blond, ice cold, snow white, press hard, sky blue, Canis familiaris tired, paper white, pencil thin, swayer heterosexual, primrose xanthous, brick ruddy, blade crisp ;

degree Celsius ) different grade of quality: mountains high, a spot longer, a trifle easier, a shadiness darker, ankle deep.

Forms of this sort are by and large used metaphorically and map as expedients to show strength and accent, e. g. : “ I ‘ll direct Pork to Macon to-morrow to purchase more seed. Now the Yankies wo n’t fire it and our military personnels wo n’t necessitate it. Good Lord, cotton ought to travelsky high
this autumn ” .
( Mitchell )

Further illustrations are:

He is universe excessively modest. That wastonss better
. This wastonss better.
He wasrock deaf
to our petition. Waves went mountains high. The clay was ankle deep.

Adverbial usage of nouns will besides be found in such premodification constructions as: bone tired, Canis familiaris tired, mustard coloured, horror struck,
etc.

In the grammar of nouns there have besides developed interjectional utilizations which seem to change over nouns into particular sort of “ intensives ” , e. g. : What the devils do you desire? What the mischievousness do you desire?

Further illustrations are:

Thesnake pit
you say
= you do n’t state so.

Likesnake pit
Iwish

I will wishsnake pit
/ I will non

Where in the snake pit you are traveling?

How the Satan should I cognize?

Adverbs of avowal and negation yes
and no
are intensified in accent by the propinquity of a bald wailing snake pit,
e. g. : Hell, yes! Hell, no!

In the decision of my work, I would wish to state some words harmonizing the done probe.

The chief portion of my work consists of following points:

& # 183 ;& # 171 ; What is Noun & # 187 ; ? ,
as it is seen from the rubric in this portion I gave the definition to the term noun.

& # 183 ;& # 171 ; Semantical Features of Nouns & # 187 ;
In this chapter I characterized English nouns from due their semantical significance.

& # 183 ;& # 171 ; Category of Number & # 187 ; .
In this portion I gave the d