The Empires Of Knowledge Commerce Essay

The imperiums of cognition are the lone empires that affair and that last as it is these imperiums which lead to the creative activity, development, nutriment and endurance of all other imperiums. However, like the proverbial Roman Empire, the imperiums of cognition are built neither in a twenty-four hours nor by a individual individual or group of individuals. On the other manus, there are hosts and hosts of bookmans belonging to different times and climates with whose consistent attempts the olympian building of cognition non merely comes into being but besides develops and shines further. Thus, no research, whatsoever, can be conducted in isolation and every research worker is indebted to all his/her predecessors and coevalss who have in any manner, made their part to that peculiar field. The reappraisal of literature that follows is the research worker ‘s enterprise to foreground that part and admit her liability to them for paving the manner for her research.

A big figure of surveies that have been conducted by bookmans and research workers on different facets of direction positions through spiritualty in India and abroad are reproduced in brief as under:

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Upinderjit Kaur ( 1990 ) in her published Ph.D thesis “ Sikh Religion and Economic Development ” assessed the function of the spiritual factors in economic development with peculiar focal point on Sikhism. The survey is inter-disciplinary in nature and the research worker has tried to show a critical rating of the basic dogmas of the Sikh community and the incentives/disincentives which they provide for economic development. The survey analyzed the relationship between Sikhism and economic development by analyzing Sikh spiritual system, the biblical value system, the institutional model and the operational value system as the chief parametric quantities. The research worker found out that non-economic factors have a decisive influence on economic development. In other words, spiritual beliefs and values act upon the economic system by seting an unerasable impact on the ethos of an economic system. It is concluded that Sikhism is supportive of forces of advancement as it is a life-asserting, world-affirming, progressive, active and classless faith and the Sikhs because of their entrepreneurial and advancement oriented character have been playing an of import function in the state ‘s economic growing.

Braam Oberholster ( 1993 ) in his paper, “ Management- A Christian Perspective ” , outlines the constructs and defects of classical, human dealingss and human resource direction position and unfolds the relevancy of the Christian position in the said countries. The survey suggested that harmonizing to the Christian perspective the function of direction should be understood as that of a steward ( servant leader ) who together with other God created people, takes attention of the resources that have been entrusted to them for the development towards God directed intents and to the glorification of God. It further says that the director is expected to convey development through his work which is for the benefit of others and should be proactive, advanced and balanced in his attack. This position provides the man of affairs a much higher significance in life than mere material addition, much higher intent than to do net income and in his function as a steward, to supply a religious dimension in the work topographic point. The survey concluded that the Christian position brings overall enrichment by run intoing people ‘s psychological, societal, rational, aesthetic and religious demands while turn toing economic, technological, social and environmental concerns to the benefit of all world.

S.K. Chakraborty ( 1995 ) in his book “ Ethical motives in Management: Vedantic Positions ” provided a conceptual and empirical model of Vedantic and allied rules applicable to the assorted facets of direction. The book examined the relevancy of the Vedantic system in single motive, leading and the transmutation of the work moralss. It suggests a set of guidelines to resuscitate holistic consciousness for ethico-moral values. It besides surveies the part of great minds like Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatma Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo and others in the field of different direction positions.

The writer besides examined the Tata leading crisis of 1991 and the securities cozenage of 1991-92 and asserted that the fragmentary attacks to overhaul organic civilizations like that of India, are fraught with sedate danger. If its basic human values are restored with renewed energy, of which the concern ashram could be a modern symbol, India would be making good, both to herself and the universe. The writer concludes that the integrating of western technological and managerial accomplishments with a holistic cultural ethos and system of values should be applied in direction for prolonging corporate morality.

Stephen J. Gould ( 1995 ) in his paper, “ The Buddhist Perspective on Business Ethical motives: Experiential Exercises for Exploration and Practice ” , asserted that a Buddhist position on moralss takes into history the person in a holistic mode. The intent of the paper was to analyze Buddhist -inspired attack to moralss and its pertinence to concern. The research worker constructed exercisings to analyze the self- apprehension of the directors and its impact on the behavior of the concern. On the footing of these experiential exercisings, he emphasised that an person should concentrate on one ‘s ideas, feelings and behaviors in relation to one ‘s ethical bearing in the behavior of concern. The survey suggested that by utilizing brooding exercisings, the directors can heighten ethical apprehension and pattern in concern affairs. It eventually concluded that Buddhist position on interior ideas and feelings of the person can light ethical concerns in extremely practical ways and assist decision-makers to take ethical determinations.

Addel Rahman ( 1995 ) in his paper, “ An Islamic Perspective on Organisational Motivation ” , offers an alternate Islamic position on organizational motive. The survey reveals that Western theoretical accounts conceive organisational motive as, in kernel, a human relationship between the organisational member and the organisation whereas the Islamic position perceives organisational motive as a human relationship, but one that springs from or, is anchored in the relationship, between the person and God. Therefore, the research worker asserts, that the basis of employee motive is non the single intrinsic demands but those work related committednesss that are religious in nature and are for functioning others.

The alternate Islamic position on organizational motive as proposed by the research worker was based on the Islamic concept- ihsan i.e honing one ‘s behavior by instilling Godhead goodness. The survey concluded that if the theoretical account of organisational motive is based on Islamic position so it will take to maximise organizational efficiency, the organisational member ‘s self-respect, self-denial, self- duty, self-respect and client reactivity.

N. Siva Kumar and U.S. Rao ( 1996 ) in their paper, “ Guidelines for Valuess Based Management in Kautilya ‘s Arthashastra ” , assert that Kautilya ‘s Arthshastra provides a entire model for the pattern of value based direction. The aim of their paper was to develop a theoretical account for value-based direction on the guidelines provided in Kautilya ‘s Arthshastra with focal point on moralss, ethical motives and values. The theoretical account developed by the research workers is based on three constituents. The first constituent, organisational doctrine, defines the basic intent of the being of the organisation, which should be public assistance of the assorted stakeholders and the society. The 2nd constituent is value based leading. The research workers assert that Katuliya insisted on a leader who was virtuous, who promoted the people ‘s public assistance at all times, in all topographic points and at all costs, who is a righteous and religious leader. The 3rd constituent is organisation ‘s civilization. The theoretical account incorporated the Kautilya ‘s belief that non merely the leader but organisation members should besides be virtuous and righteous and their righteous behavior should be rewarded while their unethical behavior should be checked. The theoretical account besides elaborated the policies for the achievement of organisational intents.

The paper concluded that Kautilya ‘s attack acknowledged the relevancy of assorted constituents of organisational doctrine and civilization, stakeholders ‘ policies and feedback on public presentation in effectual pattern of value-based direction. The alone characteristic of the ‘Arthashastra ‘ was found to be the construct of ‘Yoga-Kshema ‘ ( societal public assistance ) . The paper construed that Kautilya ‘s Arthshastra provides guidelines towards the pattern of value-based-management which are applicable even today.

Ronald M. Green ( 1997 ) in his paper, “ Steering Principles of Jewish Business Ethics ” , developed six most of import guiding rules of classical Jewish concern moralss and illustrated their application by using them on issues of concern duties. These rules included- ( 1 ) the legitimacy of concern activity and net income ; ( 2 ) the Godhead beginning and ordination of wealth ( and therefore the bounds and duties of human ownership ) ; ( 3 ) the pre-eminent place in determination doing given to the protection and saving ( holiness ) of human life ; ( 4 ) the protection of consumers from commercial injury ; ( 5 ) the turning away of fraud and deceit in gross revenues minutess ; and ( 6 ) the moral demand to travel beyond the missive of the jurisprudence.

These rules specify that economic activity should be carried out to gain legitimate net incomes and should be pursued for societal justness, and protection and saving of holiness of human life. Harmonizing to the research worker, these Talmudic rules ( Judaic rules of religion ) advocator that the concern should be conducted within the model of spiritual and ethical norms, should avoid fraud and deceit and should protect the vulnerable consumers from injury. Directors should move as stewards of wealth, belongings and natural environment. The survey concluded that spiritual and ethical instructions can take directors towards moral esthesias and higher degree of moral achievements.

Rafik Issa Beekun and Jamal Badawi ( 1999 ) in their published research work, “ Leadership: An Islamic Perspective ” , integrated modern-day concern techniques with traditional Islamic wisdom. The aim of the survey was to understand the nature and procedures of Islamic leading and to construe a theoretical account of leading effectivity from Islamic position. The findings of the survey depict that Muslim leaders were effectual because they adjusted their manner of leading to suit the features of their members and the state of affairss but neglected their functions as managers or wise mans. Researchers assert that those leaders who engaged in self – development and had ability to look at a state of affairs from multiple positions were more successful.

The survey besides gave the impression of dynamic followership, as emphasized in Quran, where followings should be obedient and have willingness to work in integrity. They analyzed Kouzes and Posner theoretical account ( Model developed by Jim Kouzes and Barry Posner in their celebrated work “ Leadership Challenge ” from Islamic Leadership position and juxtaposed each measure with poetries from Quran or anecdotes of Islamic leaders, reasoning that the high quality of a leading theoretical account centered on ethical rules is eventually emerging as the best leading paradigm.

M.P. Bhattathiri ( 1999 ) in his research article, “ Bhagavat Gita and Management ” , discussed the value of old truths in the new context. The aim of the survey was to develop a model of direction based on wisdom of Bhagavad Gita for carry oning managerial maps in an first-class and efficient mode. The findings suggest that every director tries to make a degree of excellence and effectivity and this can be achieved by pull offing oneself as propounded by Bhagavad Gita. Harmonizing to the research worker Sri Krishana elaborates two types of work culture-daivi sampat or Godhead work civilization and asuri sampat or diabolic work civilization and advocators daivi sampat as the right and true manner of pull offing concern. The Bhagavad Gita contains many direction constructs and schemes to undertake and get the better of crisis and to accomplish the mental equilibrium.

The research worker stresses that in the comparative analysis of western direction and direction as given in Bhagwad Gita, the illation is that western direction thought frequently deals with jobs at stuff, external and peripheral degree whereas Bhagavad Gita tackles the issue from grassroots degree of human thought. The best agencies of effectual direction public presentation is the work itself. Sri Krishana changed Arjuna ‘s head from the province of inactiveness to one of righteous action but reminded him that his actions should non be for his benefit but for ‘Loksangraha ‘ i.e. for the public assistance or the good of many. He concludes that western direction theoretical account should non be discarded but modified in conformity with the ideals of Bhagavad Gita.

Gerald F. Cavanagh and Mark R. Bandsuch ( 2002 ) in their paper titled “ Virtue as a Benchmark for Spirituality in Business ” tested the hypothesis-A spiritualty that enables a individual to develop good moral wonts ( or virtuousness ) is appropriate for the workplace. To prove the hypothesis, they analysed the leading styles of-Aaron Fewerstein, Max Depree, John Marx Templeton, James E. Brike and Robers Haas- the top five executives. It was found that these leaders attributed their success to their ain spiritualties. Their illustrations demonstrated how virtue stems from their spiritualty and is, hence, sensible to utilize virtuousness as a benchmark to judge the rightness of the spiritualty and it should non be insouciant or occasional or faith based. The findings show that the development of most of the good moral wonts or virtuousnesss in the workplace addition worker unity, cooperation, motive, creativeness, job-satisfaction and productiveness.

It is found through the survey that a virtuous individual will ever move ethically and will make the right things at work and elsewhere. The research workers conclude that the procedure of virtuousness development includes repeated good moral Acts of the Apostless which becomes a wont and leads to the formation of employee ‘s virtuous character, which in bend benefits the workplace and the house, minimising the possible jobs.

E. M. Epstein ( 2002 ) in his paper titled “ Religion and Business – The Critical Role of Religious Traditions in Management Education ” highlighted the importance of spiritual values in direction and the demand to learn these values in the concern schools. Harmonizing to the research worker, several parts noted that the Hebrew Bible, Rabbinic Writings, the Quran and the books of Sunnah are moderately expressed refering the ethical criterions expected in peculiar concern contexts. The survey asserts that Management instruction has a function to play in presenting instructions drawn from our spiritual traditions into concern moralss so that persons have sought to make a connexion between their work personality and their religious/spiritual personality. The survey concludes that concern actions, spiritualty and spiritual committedness are inextricable parts of a consistent life and the direction pupils should be prepared to see this possibility through reformed course of study.

Kuldeep Singh ( 2002 ) , in his paper titled, “ Business Ethical motives in Sikh Tradition ” , claimed that Sikhism sets really exalted moral criterions for its disciples to follow and gives high ethical values to run the day-to-day personal businesss. The aim of the paper was to develop the moral criterions and codification of behavior for concern based on the wisdom of Sri Guru Granth Sahib ( Sikh Scripture ) . The survey asserts that Guru Nanak founded Sikhism when other faiths were neglecting to supply right way to the people. The writer has quoted many hymns/verses from Sri Guru Granth Sahib to picture the moralss to be adhered to by the concern community.

The findings suggest that on the footing of virtuousnesss emphasized in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, a Sikh man of affairs is to do certain that his concern moralss are non in struggle with the value system of Sikh faith. He is to portion his gaining with his fellow existences in the spirit of duty and non as charity, he should handle every employee every bit irrespective of caste/creed/age/gender, he should non rip off, lie, payoff, indulge in black selling or stash money and he should non strip anyone of his/her due portion or rewards. The analysis of Sikh political orientation farther suggests that an employee should besides make his occupation unfeignedly with the aim of functioning humanity, and non to gain money to go rich or to stamp over others. The research worker concludes that Sri Guru Granth Sahib can go the footing of character edifice for a Sikh as Sikhism gives a most ethical system for proper behavior of concern every bit good as other professions.

Nalini V.Dave ( 2003 ) in her book, “ Vedanta and Management ” , focused on basic and ageless truths of Vedanta and illustrated the application and execution of these in direction patterns. The writer proposed the Indian direction thought based on the constructs of Vedanta in the countries of direction of ego, direction of work forces, leading, motive, communicating, decision-making etc. It was suggested that a director should be Karma-Yogi, in the existent sense of the word. If he has control over Raga ( fond regard ) , Bhava ( fright ) , and Krodh ( choler ) , if he has the art to raise his people from egoistic vision to macro-vision, if he can pull off his ain ego, if he can convey out maximal deity and potencies from his employees for the improvement of non merely the employees but besides of the organisation and the society as a whole, he will decidedly come out as an first-class director merely like Raja ( King ) in administration and Rishi ( Saint ) in qualities. The writer concluded that harmonizing to the Vedantic position, concern should non be viewed merely as a agency of gaining net incomes but as a agency for the development of persons, organisations and the whole world towards its excellence.

Arun Kumar ( 2004 ) in his published research work, “ Management Leadership through Bhagwat Gita ” , made an in-depth survey with a position to research, place and explicate the wisdom of Bhagwat Gita in the field of leading and squad edifice, doctrine of life, work moralss, decision-making, motive, communicating and human dealingss in concern and industry. A closed ended sentiment canvass questionnaire was developed by him to happen out the sentiment of advisers, directors and supervisory applied scientists working in Indian and transnational corporations within the National Capital Region sing the possibility of direction leading through Bagawat Gita.

Though the construct of ‘Nishkama Karma ‘ , making good workss without any outlook of wages, acknowledgment, grasp or gratitude, the cardinal instruction of Gita, was rejected by the good bulk in the sentiment polls. The construct of ‘Nishkama Karma ‘ might be acceptable if it is explained as process-oriented alternatively of reward-oriented. Procedure instruction stresses the procedure through which consequences are obtained and non the consequences themselves. A comparative analysis of western theoretical account of Management Leadership and Bhagwat Gita theoretical account of Management Leadership leads to the decision that Bhagwat Gita theoretical account is perfectly superior to the western theoretical account and a successful direction theoretical account for any state must be civilization specific. It was concluded that by the synthesis of Bhagwat Gita doctrine, beliefs, attitudes and values with Western thought and techniques, Indian directors would be able to carry through their Indian cultural specific functions non merely in Indian corporate scene but in the universe corporate scene besides.

Justin G. Longenecker, Joseph A. McKinney and Carlos W. Moore ( 2004 ) , in their research paper, “ Religion Intensity, Evangelical Christianity and Business Ethical motives: An Empirical Survey ” , undertook an empirical probe of 1234 concern directors and professionals in the United States with an aim to analyze the relationship between the spiritual committednesss and concern moralss. Respondents evaluated the quality of 16 concern determinations and besides indicated the nature of their ain spiritual persuasions. Those who accepted really positively the Bible as a dependable usher and recognized Jesus Christ as Lord of all concern activities were classified as Evangelicals. The survey found that Evangelical and Non- Evangelical respondents differ in the grade of importance they assign to spiritual values. Evangelical respondents showed a greater reluctance to O.K. ethically questionable determinations than did respondents keeping other type of spiritual religion. The survey concluded that there is a positive relationship between the spiritual committednesss and concern moralss of directors and some values better moral judgements of at least some type of ethical issues.

Muzammil Siddiqi ( 2004 ) in his research article, Business Ethics in Islam, deliberated upon the instructions of Prophet Mohammad with an aim to develop Islamic concern moralss. The research worker threw light on the great personality of Prophet Mohammad, who was an ideal human being, a multi-dimensional personality, the best instructor, preacher, usher, solon, lawmaker and justice and was besides a really honorable and successful man of affairs. Harmonizing to the survey, every director should follow the Prophet, who emphasized that honestness and sort covering with clients is the secret of success in concern.

The research worker besides analysed the major rules of just concern covering harmonizing to Islam like Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud etc. where Islam forbids monopolies, stashing ware, dealing of haram points, advocators common consent of two parties, kindness to purchaser, truthfulness and honestness in traffics and discussed the function of concern moralss in present scenario. The survey concludes that in the present epoch of globalisation all people should be treated every bit without favoritism, the resources of Earth should non be wasted or destroyed, due regard should be given to spiritual sentiments of all, ethical criterions should be promoted, instruction system should be improved and all should populate under the aureate rule-Like for others what you like for yourself.

Prema Sagar and Ashwani Singla ( 2004 ) in their paper, “ Trust and Corporate Social Responsibility: Lessons from India ” , have discussed the construct of corporate societal duty as enshrined in the sacred Indian texts and its impact on Indian CSR policies. By analysing the top 10 most well-thought-of companies in India, the research workers found that the deeply engrained belief in Karma as espoused by Bhagwat Gita extends into the function of concern in the society, interrupting across the barriers of civilization, faith and linguistic communication. The findings show that the celebrated corporate houses of Tata and Birla have led the manner in doing corporate societal duty an built-in portion of their concern programs.

The constructs of ternary bottom-line coverage, i.e. assessing and supplying an history of a company ‘s societal, environmental and economic impact and public presentation was embraced by merely a few boulder clay 2000 but today such coverage is done by the bulk to turn out that they are moving responsibly. An analysis of Fortune 500 companies shows that all are prosecuting CSR policies, chiefly being handled by their public dealingss section, followed by CSR section or other sections and countries handled scope from moralss, environment, wellness and safety to gender rights, investors rights, human rights etc. It is concluded that the Indian values are the pillars continuing the symbiotic relationship between the community and concern in India.

E. Ajanta Chakravarty ( 2005 ) in his book titled, “ The Gita and the Art of Successful Management ” , brought out an interesting survey of Gita in the context of direction of modern endeavor. The intent of the book was to research the direction base of Hinduism as enshrined in Gita. The research worker deemed the warrior as an executive and the Sarathi as a director and deduced that the success of the warrior depends on the vision and analysing accomplishments of the sarathi, who knows how to take best advantage of the chances. Gita describes different signifiers of Yoga and harmonizing to the writer, Yoga is a philosophical system that treats all life as a direction endeavor. The survey surmised that a director, to be successful, should take realistic vision of the entirety and should lift above narrow, short term and individualistic motivations. He should be able to clear up the subsidiary ‘s thoughts, encourage and motivate him, increase his cognition, steer him the manner Krishna transformed Arjuna, who was dispirited, directionless, confused and in torment. The survey concludes that the organisation will boom merely when director keeps a larger vision consisting good of world and the public assistance of society and in the terminal like Arjuna, one should be above all uncertainties towards the responsibilities and rise in enlightenment.

Nikhil Barat and Bani P. Banerjee ( 2005 ) , in their book, “ Comparative Ethos in Management ” , analysed continents like America, Europe, Asia, and Australia to foreground the difference between the civilization and ethos of the states. History, instruction degree, character traits, national ethos and ethos in direction of different states were discussed with the aim that the survey of the different traits would enable the growing of common apprehension and therefore do planetary interactions more nonsubjective and fruitful. The writers undertook a critical survey of several taking states to set up state specific and clip specific tendencies as besides the alterations that have taken topographic point and alterations most likely to go on in those states. It has been found that communicating spread between directors of different states who were to run together in the age of globalization should be realised and removed. The survey concludes that in any state, a company ‘s success is best assured if its ethos is guided and is in line with the national ethos of the state it is runing in.

Aruna Das Gupta ( 2005 ) in her paper titled, “ Corporate Social Responsibility in India: Promoting Human Development towards a Sacro-Civic Society ” , attempted at charting out a route map for meaning the importance of CSR. She asserted that corporate giants have a great function to play in the development of the society. They are non merely engines of economic growing but besides polar agents of societal and political integrating. Harmonizing to the study undertaken by the research worker, there were a figure of companies who believed in CSR in India. About 70 % of the corporate houses believed that they have an duty towards the society upon whose resources they are pulling but merely 3 % companies have written CSR policy.

The paper citeed illustrations of different Indian concern houses involved in CSR in advancing overall human development. Most of the concerns like Tata Sons, Birla Group, Canara Bank, Wipro, NIIT, IBM, Philips Software Center, Infosys, HCL etc. are lending towards community development. The cardinal countries covered in the CSR enterprises are accomplishments developing, literacy, wellness, hygiene, sanitation, environment programmes, H2O harvest home, rural upliftment and societal rehabilitation. She concluded that CSR is non simply a bombilation work today but is being quickly imbibed into the civilization of organisations. CSR will be the manner to travel in future and Indian companies are demoing the manner of doing sacro-civic society, a society where equality, fraternity, autonomy and harmoniousness prevail.

Swami Someswaranada ( 2005 ) in his book, “ Business Management- the Gita Way ” , stressed that the direction should be redefined and should be civilization specific since we lack strong foundation in direction of administrations. The writer suggested that in India a leader can be successful when he knows his subsidiaries good and for that he has to understand the features of Indian mind and the focal point should be on workingmans and multitudes. Harmonizing to the writer, the Indian wisdom offers theory P ( P for Parent ) where director goes through the three stairss of authorising the subsidiaries: Bhakti- where director should set up relationship with employees, Yukti- where director should concentrate on the development of the mind of the subsidiaries and Mukti- where director should give more and more freedom to employees in the work.

The writer believes that net incomes are a must for a company but the method of gaining it should be to function maximal figure of people in a better and still better manner. All the chapters and constructs are laced with illustrations and illustrations, and on their analysis many theoretical accounts for work outing assorted jobs faced by the organisations have been propounded. The writer concludes that the Gita tries to work out the jobs of concern by work outing the jobs of the people because existent power lies with the people, non with money or cognition and a man of affairs should believe in footings of giving a lead and way to the industry with a mission to assist the state to turn because our growing is sustainable when we grow along with others.

Robert Burke ( 2006 ) in his paper, “ Leadership and Spirituality ” , used a practical epistemic exploratory attack to develop a new leading paradigm. For the intent of the survey, the research worker studied the history and implicit in doctrines of direction that have led to the current popular construct of leading with a position to propose a different universe mentality to convey about a alteration to the doctrines in order to heighten leading effectivity. The research worker found that effectual leading is multi-disciplinary, affecting non merely those subjects of sociology, psychological science and engineering but that of spiritualty as good and suggested that effectual leading can be achieved by making an built-in religious connection between authoritiess, organisations and society as a whole.

He found religious leading attack effectual because of the different ways it offers for deeper penetration non merely into leader ‘s ain religious ego, but besides beyond this to that of others with whom the leader interacts and that of others who are affected by the consequences of their leading. The research worker concludes that through leaders emotional and religious intelligence, a new leading paradigm can emerge where leaders will be effectual in direction due to rational intelligence and effectual in leading due to utilize of multiple intelligence.

Hsing Yun ( 2006 ) in his paper, “ A Buddhist Approach to Management ” , laid down the rules of Humanistic Buddhism and its application to human resource direction and has given the requirements of a modern director in conformity with Buddhist attack. The aim of the survey was to analyze the working of the Sangha Community and the Chinese Monasteries to develop direction positions from Buddhist Shastras and Fo Guang Shan. The survey revealed that Buddhist Sangha Communities were administrations that excelled in managerial accomplishments because they followed the system of equality and shared duty, decentralized leading, democratic administration and effectual communicating, regard to all members of the community. The success of the Chinese Monasteries was found to be the actuality that they relied on the rules of self-commitment, self-monitoring and self-discipline.

The Fo Guang Shan ‘s attack to direction was found to be based on the fact that they believed in shared vision and values, and convergence of thoughts and sentiments of the members. The direction position developed from the Amitabha Sutra and Lotus Sutra direction was that a director should be an expert in ecological every bit good as human resource direction and should hold the power of suiting people ‘s demands. The survey concluded that Humanistic Buddhism relied on rules of self-discipline, self-motivation, self-monitoring and penitence, and to be successful, a leader should cognize how to develop, cultivate and raising a competent staff.

Stefano Zamagni ( 2006 ) in his paper titled “ Religious Valuess and Corporate Decision Making: An Economist ‘s Perspective ” , addressed two inquiries, namely- why do we speak of corporate societal duty today so insistently and what is the response to the demand for CSR from cultural and academic circles. The survey asserts that corporate philanthropic gift has ever existed and the logic of the philanthropic endeavor is one of grant or compassion and this logic and action of ‘non-profit organisations ‘ have penetrated into the logic and action of ‘for-profit organisation ‘ and besides because consumers in the era of globalisation are going more concerned about the moral effects of their pick and do non take to pass money merely on the standards of price/quality ratio.

The research worker besides asserts that since economic science was born out of moral doctrine, moralss should go a portion of the nonsubjective map of the agent. It will be the automatic motive to make what seems right, thereby presenting moral doctrine and spiritual or moral values into an economic discourse either as restraint of the nonsubjective map or as an statement of the nonsubjective map itself. The survey concludes that CSR should rest on the rule of equal self-respect of all topics involved in a concern activity, get downing from the scene of ends to the fulfilment of the entrepreneurial program.

Syed Agil, Djasriza Jasin and Fatimah Pa’wan ( 2007 ) in their paper, “ Nine Islamic Management Practices and Habits in Islamic History: Lessons for Directors and Leaderships ” , endeavoured to pull lessons from history for the benefit of modern leaders and directors. The aim of the paper was to analyze the direction manner of Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib and Caliph Umar Al-Khattab, the two leaders in Islamic history who administered the province with justness and tolerance.

The survey found that their direction systems were based on nine rules, namely-adherence to the spiritual texts, shared mission, mission and values, character edifice, seting the right people in the right topographic point, permanency and dynamism, strong human dealingss, group audience, commanding and justness and selective version. The survey concludes that Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib and Caliph Umar Al-Khattab were successful and popular leaders because of their alone features and these properties should be acquired by modern, modern-day leaders and directors to make effectual and efficient administrations.

Atul K. Shah ( 2007 ) in his paper, “ Jain Business Ethics ” , proposed to analyze the moralss and practical values of the Jain concern community. The aim of the paper was to show the relevancy of civilization and community to the sustainable concern success and to demo how present twenty-four hours surveies of societal duty and sustainability could be influenced by the Jain civilization and community. Harmonizing to the research worker, the success of Jain concern community was the result of their cultural and spiritual heritage. The survey indicated that Jains follow an ethical codification of behavior in concern and regularly interact with monastics and nuns.

The survey reveals that Jains were sharp, trusty, dependable, and versatile and have a sense of community trueness. The survey farther reveals that Jainism advocated Ahimsa intending non-violence, Anekant significance that truth has many aspects, Asteya & A ; Satya promoting Jains to be true and honest in their actions and non to steal, Saiyam intending self-discipline and self-control, tapas or restraint in feeding, Aparigraha explains that possessiveness and philistinism lead to downfall. With these values, a Jain man of affairs endeavours to minimise injury and maximise good. Business is a agency and ne’er an terminal, means to function society. Their leading manner is to be a low and unimposing director. Today, these values need to be reminded and revived as our younger coevals is acquiring affected by the changing universe. The survey concludes that communities like the Jain community, who have prospered over coevalss can convey out effectual leading and direction manners.

Balakrishnan Muniapan and Junaid M Sheikh ( 2007 ) in their paper, “ Lessons in Corporate Governance from Kautiya ‘s Arthashastra in Ancient India ” , have made an attempt to make consciousness of the relevancy of ancient literature to modern directors in effectual and efficient corporate direction patterns. The aim of the survey was to compare and use ancient literature to Corporate Governance. Harmonizing to the research workers, Arthshastra was written by Kautilya to steer King Chandragupta Maurya and its basic intent was to steer those who govern. Corporate Administration means the moral model, the value model and the ethical model under which an organisation takes determinations so that concern is done with the purpose of gaining net incomes and bring forthing wealth with the intent to portion it with stockholders so that all parties remain happy. This construct was juxtaposed with Kautilya ‘s theory by the research worker.

The paper analysed Kautiya ‘s Arthashastra and found that Kautilya stated that felicity was obtained non by wealth and net income merely, but by making things decently and making the right things. Dharma without wealth, harmonizing to Kautilya, is toothless and wealth without Dharma is useless because a hapless individual can non back up the full society. Kautilya proposed three steps to command frauds. First is to inform people of bing jurisprudence, regulations and ordinances. Second is to invest two places of Treasurer and Chief Comptroller in the organisational construction to supervise and pull off fundss. Third, he gave a list of penalties for wrongdoers and agencies of avoiding frauds. Harmonizing to the research workers, the agencies of covering with fraud, ethical behavior, qualities and responsibilities of male monarchs as given by Kautilya are applicable in today ‘s corporate direction. The paper concludes with a note that a deeper survey of Arthshastra can give new and undiscovered countries of direction constructs.

Balakrishan Muniapan ( 2007 ) in his research article “ Transformational Leadership Style as Demonstrated by Sri Rama in Valmiki Ramayana ” , applied a qualitative research methodological analysis called hermeneutics to construe Valmiki Ramayana to portray that transformational leading had long been demonstrated by Sri Rama 1000s of old ages before the development of the said theoretical account by Burns ( 1978 ) and subsequently by Bass and Avolio ( 1994 ) . The aim of the paper was to analyse and compare assorted attacks of transformational leading and transactional leading and to develop a theoretical account of leading based on the personality of Sri Rama. The survey revealed that transactional leading involves an exchange of valued things, based on current values and motives of both leaders and followings. The transformational leading motivates followings to transform towards higher ideals, moral values and higher performs. The transformational leading manner consists of four dimensions: inspirational motive, idealised influence, rational stimulation and single consideration. The research divulged that Sri Rama exhibited the Four I ‘s, inspirational motive, idealised influence, rational stimulation and individualised consideration, of transformational leading with cases from His life. Sri Rama was admired, trusted and respected by all the people of Ayodhya because he had all features of transformational leading. The survey concludes that the leading manner of Sri Rama can steer and animate the leaders non merely in India but across the Earth besides.

S. Brammer, Geoffrey Williams and John Zinkin ( 2007 ) in their paper titled “ Religion and Attitudes to Corporate Social Responsibility in a Large Cross-Country Sample ” , conducted a study to analyse the relationship between persons with spiritual association and the single attitude towards CSR on 17000 persons from 20 states. They assumed that persons that indentify with spiritual denominations will hold different attitude to the duties of houses than those who do non place with any spiritual group and differences in attitudes towards facets of societal duty between affiliates of different faiths. On the footing of the findings, the survey established that assorted spiritual groups feel that legal and economic duties are paramount for concern whereas discretional and moral duties are of subordinate concern ; this is so because most faiths value stewardship of the planet as protection of God ‘s creative activity and this is seen as everyone ‘s duty and non of one stakeholder. The analysis suggested that though faiths play a important function in determining single perceptual experiences of CSR yet there is a considerable fluctuation in attitudes to different facets of CSR across faiths like Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism.

Monika Chaudhary ( 2007 ) in her paper, “ Can Religion Guide us Through Business Complexity? A Treatise on Aagar Charitradharma of Jain Philosophy to Resolve Work Related Conflicts ” , studied the dimensions of relationship between ethical constructions framed by a spiritual preparation and organisational kineticss. The aims of the survey were to place, through primary research, if spiritual doctrine and economic idea of an person was either reciprocally synergistic or reciprocally sole and to develop a theoretical account based on the Jain doctrine and economic idea. On the footing of the decision drawn from the responses of four 100 respondents, it was inferred that at the single degree the two conceptual influences, namely- spiritual doctrine and direction of economic idea, were reciprocally synergistic as corporate employees referred to religion in instance of an ethical struggle. The research worker developed the Ethical Leadership Matrix by utilizing the rules of Jainism like Satya ( truthfulness ) , Asteya ( non stealing ) , Ahimsa ( non hurt ) , Aparigraha ( non covetousness ) , Brahamacharya ( celibacy ) , Disha and Upbhog-Paribhog Parimana ( restricting geographical motion and personal ingestion ) and Anartha Danada Viraman ( review one ‘s action ) . Such theoretical accounts can be used by corporate leaders to take critical actions. The survey concluded that a mention from faith should be taken while explicating an ethical codification of behavior for corporate leaders and employees.

Dharminder Singh Ubha ( 2007 ) in his paper, “ Corporate Administration: Solutions through Indian Spiritual System ” , aimed at explicating and systematising the intuitive wisdom of the Indian Scriptures in the field of moralss in corporate administration. The aim of the paper was to analyze the major spiritual Bibles of India, namely- the Bhagwad Gita and the Sri Guru Granth Sahib to research values and moralss based concern rules and patterns needed for good corporate administration. The paper consistently dealt with the subject by discoursing the construct of corporate administration moralss, function of moralss in corporate administration, and so the function of the huge cognition of Bibles in corporate administration. The paper suggested that the value and other norms provided by the Indian Bibles can be inculcated in the ways of the corporate universe since ethical corporate administration is the pre-requisite of any concern house.

The survey depicts that The Bhagwad Gita is fundamentally concerned with the scientific discipline of right and incorrect in human actions and consequently a director needed to rouse the concealed Krishna in his scruples for the right way. The Bhagwad Gita can supply way to the corporate wise mans to achieve duplicate aims of high rules and high net incomes. The research besides found that all the ideals of corporate administration like truthfulness, justness, moderation, bravery, humbleness and contentment are dealt with in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The decision of the paper was that if corporate administration is sprinkled with moralss and values, the consequence will be the overall wellbeing of people, corporate universe and society, at big.

George Gotsis & A ; Zoi Kortegi ( 2007 ) in their paper, “ Philosophic Foundations of Workplace Spirituality: A Critical Approach ” , aimed to consistently research the implicit in premises every bit good as the principle of the chief tendencies sing spiritualty at the workplace by critically discoursing their chief strengths and failings. The survey analysed the contextual and analytical attacks to the workplace spiritualty. They observed that contextual attack was more decently articulated in shared beliefs, visions and ideals as they better embrace the true kernel of the phenomenon whereas a-contextual attack appeared to be a eventful appraisal merely. Through tabular analysis of ethical theoretical accounts, they farther demonstrated that all the chief constituents of workplace spiritualty may be elaborated as universally held facets of virtuousness moralss model, and anticipating felicity, of a deontological model. The survey concludes that a virtue-ethics attack to religious values may offer new directives in workplace spiritualty as this theoretical account encompasses character at single degree and for wellbeing of stakeholders.

J. Koshal and J. Mulford ( 2007 ) in the research work, “ The Role of Major Religions in Economic Development: A Comparative and Exploratory Study ” , endeavours to place factors, beyond economic variables, that have consequence on economic development. The intent of the survey is to set about a comparative analysis of influence of values and beliefs of major religions-Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism-on economic development. The survey suggests that faith affected many of the premier factors of economic development like belongings rights, creativeness and invention, political authorization, contract jurisprudence and socio-cultural factors with a spot of divergency. Christianity and Islam dainty worlds as stewards of all belongings where as Buddhism encourages belongings merely for laypersons. Christianity and Buddhism are more supportive of creativeness and invention than Hinduism and Islam. All faiths advocate the fact that leaders and political establishments should work for common good of all and all faiths assert that the people should follow certain cosmopolitan ethical values. The survey concludes that economic development is influenced by factors beyond economic variables and asserts that economic systems win because they possess cultural and spiritual values along with other factors.

Narayanji Mishra ( 2007 ) in his book titled, “ Better Management and Effective Leadership through the Indian Scriptures ” , aimed at detecting the hoarded wealth hidden in the Indian texts. The survey was an enterprise to uncover that Indian bookmans were in no manner secondary to their western opposite numbers, instead they were the precursors. Harmonizing to the writer, legion ideas and theories have been propounded, tried and practised but however the prudence shrouded in Indian Bibles like Rig Veda, Manu Smriti, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Srimad Bhagvat Gita and Artha Shastra remains par excellence.

The survey discusses assorted constructs of foreign minds and constructs of Indian Bibles in the visible radiation of each other and finds that what the foreign minds have said is a portion of all that is already contained in the Indian Bibles. It was found that the ancient Bibles were full with extremely developed rules of managerial maps like leading, supervising, subject, preparation, money direction, communicating, crisis direction etc. The survey suggests that a director should understand and appreciate Indian Bibles and so absorb them for pattern. The survey concludes, through assorted illustrations and comparative analysis, that rules and ideas enunciated so far back in the yesteryear are fresh and relevant even in the epoch of globalisation and liberalisation.

Shiv K. Tripathi ( 2007 ) in his research work, “ Pull offing Business as a Religious Practice: The Bhagwadgita manner to Achieve Excellence through Perfection in Action ” , did a conceptual survey to place ways to supplement western model of direction rules and maps by integrating the rules of three waies of human redemption recommended in the Bhagwad Gita. The purpose of the survey was to set up interrelatedness among assorted constituents of concern existence and to suggest direction maps which are based on rules of Karma Yoga ( Path of Action ) , Bhakti Yoga ( Path of Dedication ) and Gyan Yoga ( Path of Knowledge ) . The model developed by the survey advocates that pre-eminence of cognition, cognition of administration, ego and Torahs of nature is required to accomplish excellence in action, action which is for the addition of the whole creative activity and which should non conflict the Torahs of nature.

The research worker asserts that the necessities of any action should be lucidity of the aim behind action, cognition of the instruments of action, co-ordination of different attempts for the action, dedication and devotedness to action and non fond regard to consequences of the action as preached by Bhagwad Gita. The research work concludes that a direction theoretical account developed on the footing of Indian Vedanta will surely be more effectual than western theoretical accounts.

Swami Bodhnanda ( 2007 ) in his book, “ Indian Management and Leadership ” , which is the digest of talks delivered by him at assorted Management Institutions, asserts why is India backward in malice of rich heritage and fantastic wisdom? He infers that Indians are proud of and radius of wisdom but were unable to use it to practical usage. The writer stresses that the spiritualty has to show itself in action. Harmonizing to the writer, The Gita says that when two factors, action ( Arjuna ) and brooding consciousness ( Krishna ) articulation, there is shree ( wealth ) , vijaya ( success ) , bhuti ( prosperity ) and niti ( justness ) . The survey finds that directors need to re-engineer their personalities by developing religion in their ain infinitude, by developing personality from within, inside out, by confronting challenges, by prosecuting in competitory universe with withdrawal and by following the scruples.

The book presents a theoretical account of direction which, while rooted in Indian wisdom and tradition, embraces the salient characteristics of western scientific idea. The survey concludes that Krishna advocated, ‘Mental poise in success and failure ‘ and therefore implored the hereafter directors to follow Nishkama Karma, which is non action without desire, but is action without reaction to the fruits and non-reaction is non entire indifference but appropriate and controlled response.

Subhash Sharma ( 2007 ) in his book, “ New Mantras in Corporate Corridors: From Ancient Roots to Global Routes ” , provides an original and a originative part to Indian Management idea with the aid of new direction mantras, theoretical accounts and tools, holding planetary relevancy. Part one of the book explores the Indian societal scene in which the direction and leading operate. From the antediluvian texts the writer creates a VEDA ( vision, enlightenment, devotedness and action ) Model. ‘Self ‘ is the subject of 2nd portion of the book. Seven theoretical accounts of Self-Development have been developed on Guna theory and related thoughts.

The writer avers that the three phases of ego development are transactional, transformational and nonnatural. It led from self-importance to eco to cosmic degrees of consciousness. Part three focuses on endeavor and ballads