This chapter nowadays and discuss background of survey, job statement, intent of research, research inquiries, research aims, research hypothecs and important of the survey. Finally the key footings of this research are besides defined.
1.1 Background of the Study
Knowledge is now being seen as the most of import strategic resource in organisations, and the direction of this cognition is considered critical to organisational success. A common platform where persons work in unison to gain net incomes every bit good as a support for themselves is called an organisation. A topographic point where persons realize the dream of doing it large is called an organisation. Every organisation has its alone manner of working which frequently contributes to its civilization. The beliefs, political orientations, rules and values of an organisation signifier its civilization. The civilization of the workplace controls the manner employees behave amongst themselves every bit good as with people outside the organisation.
If organisations have to capitalise on the cognition they possess, they have to understand how cognition is created, shared, and used within the organisation. Knowledge exists and is shared at different degrees in organisations. Many surveies examine cognition sharing at the most basic degree ; viz. , between persons in organisations. Based on a reappraisal of bing literature in this country, some of these surveies present a theoretical account that identifies factors that most significantly influence cognition sharing at this degree.
The inextricable association among cognition and civilization is obvious within organisations in subcultures that coexist within the same organisation and are distinguished by their sights of cognition. Subcultures vary from one another in the shared premises that direct their actions. Numerous researches have studied the premises of subcultures related with cognition for case: Harrison & A ; Stokes proposed four organisational political orientations viz. power orientation, function orientation, undertaking orientation and individual orientation. Schein identified three subcultures present in organisations: ( a ) the operator civilization, ( B ) the technology civilization, and ( degree Celsius ) the executive civilization. The worker civilization presumes that organisational accomplishment depends on single ‘s cognition and accomplishments. The technology civilization is based on the premise that the best accounts are “ people free ” ; it prefers quantitative cognition that is additive, with simple cause-and-effect associations. Last, the direction civilization believes 4 that citizens are an indispensable immorality to achieve organisational aims. It values knowledge that promotes effectiveness and productiveness. De Long & A ; Fahey examined the correlativity between civilization and the creative activity, sharing, and use of cognition. They concluded that civilization, and chiefly subcultures significantly act upon these knowledge-related procedures in four ways:
1. Culture shapes premises refering which cognition is important.
2. Culture mediates the associations between single and organisational cognition.
3. Culture creates a place for societal interaction.
4. Culture shapes the creative activity and credence of new cognition.
As Schein and De Long & A ; Fahey argue that based on these four ways knowledge-related procedures and organisational civilization are closely associated.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
KM has become a popular subject for research presents and the demand for look intoing factors that may impede or back up KM procedures is quickly increasing. Consequently, immense figure of surveies refering KM issues and specialised KM diaries has become available and still emerging. In malice of this fact, and supported by the statement that organisational, societal, and managerial theories are culturally constrained and reflect the civilization of the environment where they were developed, it is irrational to presume that the available literature in all universities ‘ refering KM can be suited to explicate KM environment in private universities. This creates a immense spread in the available literature within the context of all universities associating to KM patterns, procedures, environment and schemes which might restrict organisational ability to accommodate to the knowledge-based instruction of today ‘s environment. Consequently, organisations of private universities are threatened to remain behind if the rightness of organisational environment for KM procedures are non considered.
This survey assumes that the success or failure of KM application extremely depends on the cultural scene which can strongly find people ‘s ability non merely to make but besides to portion and efficaciously utilize cognition and reassign their tacit cognition into an expressed signifier that can profit the whole organisation. The deficiency of adequate survey on private universities refering KM, which is considered as a debatable issue, provides a clear justification for conducting of this survey. Based on this statement, this survey follow a instance survey attack to research the rightness of organisational civilization for KS as one of the most of import KM procedures and the impact of some cardinal cultural properties including: trust, collaborative working environment, shared vision and direction patterns on KS. Sing the complexness of civilization construct and the quandary of organisational civilization, these four cultural properties are seen, from this survey ‘s point of position, as comprehensive and common cultural factors that are expected to hold an impact on sharing of cognition among organisational members on different degrees.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The intent of this survey is to analyze the relationship between cognition direction and organisational civilization, following the position of cognition. Understanding how different cultural types are associated with specific cognition direction should cast visible radiation on how the relationship between organisational civilization and cognition direction is manifested in the picks of organisations.
Furthermore of this quantitative grounded theory research is to analyze the impact of organisational civilization and cognition sharing processes to retain, portion, and utilize mission-critical of cognition direction. Knowledge direction processs may be broken down into a figure of separate facets, one of them is Knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing besides called cognition transportation or knowledge diffusion refers to the procedure by which cognition is transferred from one individual to another, from persons to groups, or from one group to another group ( Jones, Cline, & A ; Ryan, 2006 ) . The determination of this research will acknowledge the consequence of organisational civilization factor on reassigning cognition. This investigates attempts to analyze cardinal facets of organisational civilization, as evidenced in the literature, that support or impede efficient cognition direction. As higher directors consider ways to allow and direct organisational cognition, they will meet a cultural factor that either facilitates or creates barriers to knowledge sharing. This research presents a selected digest of these cultural factors that can help an organisation create, portion, and use cognition expeditiously.
1.4 aim of the Study
In the visible radiation of the above theoretical position and the old surveies, this survey explores the impact of four cultural dimensions including trust, collaborative working environment, shared vision, and direction patterns on KS as a cardinal procedure involved in KM application. These are seen as an of import properties that, as this survey proposed, can find the rightness of MMU ‘s civilization for successful application of KM. To accomplish this purpose, the survey will seek to:
1 ) Determine the degree of trust among MMU employee.
2 ) Determine the degree of collaborative working environment within the context of Multi Media University.
3 ) Explore the being of a shared vision among MMU employee.
4 ) Determine the nature of managerial patterns within the context of Multi Media University.
1.5 Research Questions
Consequently, this survey seeks to reply the undermentioned chief research inquiries:
aˆ? What are the perceptual experiences of MMU ‘s employees refering the degree and nature of trust, collaborative working environment, shared vision and direction patterns within the context of Multi Media University?
aˆ? What is the impact of the proposed cultural properties on sharing of cognition among organisational members within the context of Multi Media University?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
To accomplish the purpose and aims of this survey, the undermentioned theoretical account ( Figure 1 ) was proposed. To prove the research theoretical account, the following chief hypothesis was proposed: Cultural properties ( trust, collaborative working environment, direction patterns, and employees ‘ shared vision ) support KS within the context of MMU. To prove this chief hypothesis, the undermentioned sub-hypotheses were proposed.
Hypothesis No. 1.1: The degree of trust within the context of MMU has important statistical impact on KS.
Hypothesis No. 1.2: Collaborative working environment within the context of MMU has important statistical impact on KS.
Hypothesis No. 1.3: Employees shared vision within the context of MMU has important statistical impact on KS.
Hypothesis No. 1.4: Managerial patterns within the context of MMU have important statistical impact on KS.
Figure 1: Research Model
1.7 Significant of the Study
This survey is of great importance non merely for the hereafter of private universities ‘ organisations but besides for all universities due to the shared societal and cultural values of all type of universities. The current tendency that views organisational cognition as extremely valuable organisational plus emphasizes the demand to look into the nature of this natural plus. It is our belief that organisational civilization may supply an advantage for universities organisations. Since cognition is in fact a societal property that involves making, sharing, reassigning, and storing of an accumulative cognition, universities civilization is expected to play a supportive function refering the diffusion of KM patterns. Understanding of cultural facets may heighten the transmutation of universities organisations from conventional into modern and potentially function theoretical account of today ‘s organisations which represent the dream of every universities director every bit good as every direction bookman. The demand to set up a chiseled and new direction construct might consequently be enabled.
Furthermore, if we accept knowledge to be socially constructed so, like civilization ; it emerges through interaction bing merely in a extremely abstract signifier. Knowledge is therefore seen in footings of cognitive, situational, experiential and emotional factors. There is a demand, in the paradigm displacement from the mechanistic intervention of cognition to the organic, to happen the simple regulations that govern behavior in a complex environment, to enable people to get and convey cognition efficaciously. These procedures can be enabled or disturbed by cultural factors that govern people ‘s behaviour within a societal entity. Therefore it is extremely of import for the organisation to acknowledge its civilization and hunt for supportive cultural elements that could decidedly heighten cognition acquisition, knowledge creative activity or transportation, KS, cognition retrieval, and cognition purchase. The importance of this survey comes from its effort to specify how civilization can back up or impede KM application.
1.8 Scope of the Study
Although Malaysia has many universities and they employ 1000s of workers, this research does non hold adequate resources to cover such high figure of overall constitutions and high figure of workers. However, this research will merely analyze MMU in Cyberjaya. A certain figure of workers who are working in different sections within MMU will be selected indiscriminately. A proper sampling procedure will be undertaken consistently to stand for this population.
1.9 Definition of Footings
1. 9.1 the Concept of Knowledge
Before trying to turn to the inquiry of cognition direction, it is of import to foreground the undermentioned rules refering the construct of cognition.
aˆ? A aggregation of informations is non information.
aˆ? A aggregation of information is non knowledge.
aˆ? A aggregation of cognition is non wisdom.
aˆ? A aggregation of wisdom is non truth.
Figure ( 2 ) explains the relationships and hierarchy of the constructs of informations, information, cognition and wisdom.
Figure 2: Hierarchy of the constructs of informations, information, cognition and wisdom Beginning: ( Al-adaileh, 2008 )
That aggregation of informations is non information ; it implies that a aggregation of informations for which there is no relation between the pieces of informations is non information. Processing of information is the mechanism to transform the useless set of informations into useable information. Processing of information which involves scrutiny and designation of relationships between them transform the information into cognition that will be of more value for persons every bit good as for the organisation. Wisdom arises when one understands the foundational rules responsible for the forms stand foring cognition being what they are. And wisdom, even more so than cognition, tends to make its ain context. These foundational rules are cosmopolitan and wholly context independent. Knowledge so can be seen as accretion of information in the individual ‘s head. The beginnings of cognition are varied and may include interaction with others, experiences, readings, listening, emotional factoraˆ¦etc. There are two types of cognition including ‘explicit ‘ and ‘tacit ‘ cognition.
Explicit cognition is formal and systematic and consequently can be easy communicated and shared among people within a peculiar context. Examples of expressed cognition may include documented organisational processs, merchandise specifications, or official organisational publications. Tacit cognition is extremely personal and difficult to be formalized. It can merely be in the homo ‘s head. It is a merchandise of people interaction with each other and the people interaction with the environment around them. Tacit cognition consequently can be transformed into expressed cognition through interaction and exchanging of thoughts between people within a societal context or through formal authorship and publications. An organisation should ever seek ways to non merely use the expressed cognition but besides to transform silent cognition to explicit cognition and so make an appropriate environment to portion this cognition and utilize it efficaciously to accomplish organisational ends.
1.9.2 Knowledge Management Definition
KM is a new direction construct that is surrounded by a batch of ballyhoo ( Raub & A ; Wittich, 2004 ) . Thus it is rather hard to specify the construct of KM. Different writers interpret KM construct otherwise, they perceive knowledge by different facet, that why the term cognition direction is non easy to specify as because it contains multiple representations. Shaw & A ; Edwards position KM as the sharing, keeping, use, and acquisition of Knowledge among persons within, or across, organisations. KM can besides be defined from the Human resource direction position as “ any procedure or pattern of making, geting, capturing, sharing and utilizing cognition, wherever it resides, to heighten acquisition and public presentation in organisations ” ( Swan et al. 1999b ) .
Yang & A ; Wan provide a comprehensive position of KM construct that explains all the phases involved. They define KM as “ the procedure of roll uping and placing utile information ( i.e. knowledge acquisition ) , reassigning tacit cognition to explicit cognition ( i.e. knowledge creative activity or transportation ) , hive awaying the cognition in the depository ( i.e. organisational memory ) , circulating it through the whole organisation ( i.e. KS ) , enabling employees to easy recover it ( i.e. knowledge retrieval ) and working and usefully using cognition ( i.e. knowledge purchase ) ” ( Yang & A ; Pale 2004: p595 ) . This survey argues that successful KM execution should travel beyond the operational side into societal, human and organisational facets to make single committedness towards KM execution.
1.9.3 Organizational Culture
A form of shared premises invented, discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to get by with its jobs of external version and internal integrating, and that have worked good plenty to be considered valid, and hence to be taught to new members as the right manner to comprehend, believe, and experience in relation to those jobs ( Schein, 2010 ) .
1.9.4 Knowledge sharing
“ The transportation of cognition between a cognition supplier and a cognition searcher ” ( stonerock, 2003 )
1.10 Organization of the Remainder of the Research
The balance of this research was organized into four chapters. The followers is the order in which they will be set: Chapter two is a literature reappraisal of current literature ; chapter three is the research methodological analysis utilized in the research ; chapter four is the information consequences ; and chapter five is the treatment, recommendations and decision of the research survey.