The Life And Curse Of King Tut Essay

Essay, Research Paper

?

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Matt Brockway

James Evans

Term Paper

The Life and Curse of King Tut

What comes to your head when you hear the name King Tut? That his grave was one of the most good known archaeological discoveries of all time. Possibly that the alleged expletive of King Tut comes to your head. Whatever it is, we all know that he was one time Pharaoh of Egypt. Without a uncertainty one of the most celebrated Pharaoh s of all clip. But why do we cognize more about him than any other Pharaoh? Why do they believe that there is a expletive associated with the grave of King Tut? If these are some of the inquiries that you have about him, wear T concern. This paper will take you through the life and state you about the links that could perchance be due to the expletive of King Tut.

First we must get down from the really get downing. We must acquire a steadfast base so we can to the full understand all that is associated with King Tut. The most basic thing we can get down out with his name. The name Tutankhamun comes from hieroglyphs which translate as Tut-ankh-amun, intending the Living Image of Amun. When Tut was born, he was given the name Tutankhaten,

Brockway-2

intending the Living Image of Aten. The Aten was the individual God worshipped during the regulation Akhenaten, a male monarch who is believed to hold been the male parent of Tutankhamun. Soon after Tutankhaten had become pharaoh, there was a Restoration of the previously-deposed province God Aumu and Tut s name was changed to Tutankhamun. These yearss, Tut s name is found with differing spellings, including Tutankhamun, Tutankhamen, and Tutankhamon. It is non known how the ancient Egyptians pronounced the name as they did non write vowels. ( Some hieroglyphs are transliterated as vowels, since they are weak consonants ) . Some Egyptologists add vowels to help in pass oning information.

When Tutankhamun was king ( reigned 1333-23 BCE ) , he ruled during the period know as the New Kingdom. It is said that Egypt had ruled as a universe world power for about two centuries, while its Royal household lived an flush life style. The powerful priesthood of the God Amun controlled huge temples and estates. All this changed though during the reign of Amemhotep IV when he renounced the battalion of Gods worshipped by the Egyptians and abolished the priesthood of Amun. Amenhotep so established a new order to idolize the Sun God Aten and changed his ain name to Akhenaten, intending retainer of the Aten. A new Capital so was established good to the north Thebes, which was place to the chief temples of Amun. The new metropolis was named Akhetaten, intending Horizon of the Aten. It was here that Akhenaten ruled with his main married woman ( endorse it was common for work forces to hold more than one married woman ) , Nefertiti, who bore him six girls, but no boy to transport on as Pharaoh.

So who were the parents of King Tut? It is now believed that Akhenaten and a lesser married woman named Kiya were the parents of Tutankhaten, as Tutankhamun was known as first. King Tut would pass most of his early old ages in the castles of Akhetaten, being tutored in many accomplishments,

Brockway-3

including reading and composing. Not much is known during this clip period and, in clip both Nefertiti s and Kiya s names ceased to look in written records. However, a shady figure emerged by the name of Smenkhare. He is said to hold been a brother of the Akhetaten, who briefly ruled beside him. In any instance, shortly after the deceases of Akhetaten and Smenkhare, Tutankhaten became a male child male monarch at the age of nine. He married a married woman named Ankhesenpaten, who was somewhat older than him. She was one of the six girls of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Soon their names were changed to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun to reflect the return of the Amun hierarchy and the ouster of the Aten power base. By the 4th twelvemonth of his reign, King Tut had issued a decree reconstructing the temples, images, forces, and privileges of the old Gods and besides acknowledging the mistake s of Akhenaton s expletive. Traditional faith and art manner was restored. Since Tutankhamun was at immature age when he foremost became male monarch, he was non responsible for the existent determination devising. It was chiefly handled by two high functionaries called Ay ( perchance the male parent of Nefertiti ) and Horemheb, who was the commander-in-chief of the ground forces. Sometime under their tuition moved his abode to Memphis, the administrative capital, near modern Cairo, and restored his male parent s Theban castle.

Sometime around the 9th twelvemonth of Tutankhamun s reign, perchance 1323 BCE, he died. There was grounds of an hurt to the skull. It is said that he may hold suffered an accident, such as falling from his Equus caballus drawn chariot, or possibly he was murdered. Today, no 1 knows the cause of his decease.

After the decease of King Tut, Ankhesenamun was left in a quandary & # 8211 ; there was no male in line to take the throne. ( Two stillborn female foetuss found in the grave ) Ankhesenamun was really despairing. So she wrote to Suppiluliumas I, king of the Hittites, inquiring him to direct on of

Brockway-4

his boies to get married her and go Pharaoh. Bing an enemy of Egypt, the Hittite male monarch suspected a fast one and sent an minister plenipotentiary to look into. The widow s state of affairs was confirmed and he so sent a boy, who was murdered at the boundary line. General Horemheb was suspected to hold sent agents. In the terminal, Ay became Pharaoh and took Ankhesenamun as his queen. It is non known what happened to her after this. Ay ruled for four old ages and after his decease Horemheb grabbed power. He shortly got rid of all hints of

( Valley of the Kings )

grounds of the reigns of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ay. He besides substituted his ain name on many memorials.

Tutankhamun remained at remainder in Egypt s Valley of the Kings for over 3,300 old ages. All that had changed in November 1922, when Tutankhamun s grave was discovered by the British Egyptologist Howard Carter who was unearthing on behalf of Lord Carnarvon. It would turn out to be one the greatest archaeological discoveries of all time. Carter had been seeking for a grave for a figure of old ages and Carnarvon had decided that adequate clip and money was expended with small return. Carter persuaded Carnarvon to fund one more season and within a few yearss, the grave was found. The grave today still contains the Pharaoh s remains, hidden from position inside the outermost of the three caskets. He is the lone Pharaoh residing in the Valley of the Kings. The grave of King Tut itself is really little and appears to hold been for didn Ts have every bit much impact on the Egyptian civilisation as other Pharaohs did.

In the burial grave, the lone portion that has walls pictures is the Burial Chamber. One of

Brockway-5

the scenes shows the Opening of the oral cavity Ceremony where the senses are restored to the deceased Tutankhamun. In 1s of the images, the individual executing this responsibility is Ay, who became the following Pharaoh. It besides contained four gilded shrines nested one inside the other. The innermost of these covered a rock sarcophagus. Inside this was three caskets & # 8211 ; the innermost being made of 110 kgs of solid gold.

( Map of Tutankhamun s Tomb )

The Pharaoh himself lay have oning the celebrated gold mask.

The Treasury was the place to much of the back uping equipment for Tutankhamen s hereafter. It s said to hold had a eye-popping array of boats, gilded figures, and the canopic thorax within which were assorted internal variety meats belonging to the male monarch. Gathered around the thorax in their protective stance were four beautiful gilded

figures of goddesses.

The Antechamber contained demolished chariots, containers of nutrient, assorted funeral sofas, thrones, and two black guardian figures at the entryway of the Burial Chamber. This was the first country in which Carter foremost seen when he made a hole in the blocked-off far terminal of the entry transition. A little Annex was a clutter of other equipment.

Carter had concluded that the grave had been broken into on two different occasions shortly after the Pharaoh was buried. After the break-in the grave was resealed by functionaries of the cemetery. It was fortunate that the grave robbers did non acquire off with excessively much and much of

Brockway-6

the stuff sealed in with King Tut my now be viewed in Cairo s Egyptian Museum with a few points in the Luxor Museum.

Lord Carnarvon died on April 5, 1923, seven hebdomads after the official gap of the King Tut s burial chamber. Rumors had been winging around that a expletive had killed Carnarvon. News of Tutankhamun s grave and it s discovers had sent the universe s media into a craze. There are said to be many links that there was a expletive. Such as that the visible radiations in Cairo were said to hold gone out at the minute of Carnarvon s decease ( non an uncommon occurence back so ) , while back at place his Canis familiaris, Susie, was supposed to hold howled and died at the same clip.

Carnarvons decease came merely a couple hebdomads after a populace

( Jackal sitting on a base )

warning by novelist Mari Corelli that there would be desperate effects for anyone who entered the certain grave. The media and the public Ate this up. Even Conan Doyle, the Godhead of Sherlock Holmes, believed that Carnarvon s decease cold have been the consequence of a Pharaoh s expletive. A newspaper ven published a expletive supposed to hold been written in hieroglyphs at the entryway of the grave, with the interlingual rendition stating: They who enter this sacred grave shall swift be visited by wings of decease. However, this lettering was ne’er found. Another lettering was found on the Anubis shrine ( this is the God of the grave and embalming and weigher of the Black Marias of the dead: besides represented as holding the caput of a Canis aureus ) in the grave s so called Treasury, did state: It is I who hinder the sand from choking the secret chamber. I am for the protection of the deceased. A newsman went on to add to the reported lettering: and I will kill all those who cross this threshold into the sacred precincts of the Royal King who lives everlastingly.

Brockway-7

Coverage of the expletive was fuelled by more deceases, many with really stretched associations to Tutankhamun. Closer to the grave, another casualty was the favored fink of the Howard Carter s. The bird was swallowed by a cobra on the twenty-four hours the grave was opened. This was interpreted as requital for misdemeanor of the grave, peculiarly as a cobra was depicted on the forehead of the Pharaoh from where it would ptyalize fire at the king s enemies. Harmonizing to the list, of the 26 persons present at the official gap of the grave, six had died within a decennary. In world

( Outside the Tomb of King Tut Shortly After It was Opened )

though, many of the cardinal people associated with the find on the grave lived to an old age.

There was besides some concern when some of the hoarded wealths of Tutankhamun went on circuit overseas in the 1970 s, some people still believed that the expletive might be at work. An illustration was when a police officer was guarding Tutankhmun s gold funerary mask tried to claim compensation for a mild shot based on the consequence of the expletive. The justice rapidly dismissed the claim.

To acquire a better apprehension of all this, here is a list of the major people involved with the grave and their destinies.

Howard Carter: As discover of the grave, it would look logical that Carter should hold figure 1 on the expletive s hit list, but he lived until March 1939, merely short of his sixty-fifth birthday and about 17 old ages after come ining the grave. About a decennary of this spent working in the grave itself.

Lady Evelyn Herbert: Lady Evelyn, who was Lord Carnarvon s girl and one of the first

into the grave, died in 1980 at the age of about 79.

Harry Burton: Burton was the lensman loaned to Carter by New York s Metropolitan Museum of Art. He was to document the work done in Tutankhamun s grave. Many of the black and white exposure of that clip were taken by Burton who died in 1940.

Alan Gardiner: Alan Gardiner studied the grave s letterings and was still really active working on Egyptian grammar for many old ages until his decease in 1963.

Dr D. E. Derry: Derry was the adult male who performed the original necropsy on Tutankhamun s ma. Like Carter, if anyone should hold been cursed, it should hold been this adult male. Derry didn t dice until 1969.

Lord Carnarvon: It was known that Carnarvon had been in hapless wellness for over 20 old ages, following a motoring accident in Germany. But less than two hebdomads after the official gap of the burial chamber, Carnarvon received a mosquito bite which became septic after he cut it while shaving. Carnarvon fell badly and, with his opposition lowered, he came down with pneumonia and finally passed off at the age of 57.

Was it a mosquito bite that killed Carnarvon? Could the expletive be existent? When the ma of Tutenkhamun was unwrapped in 1925, it was found to hold a lesion on the left cheek in the exact same place as the insect bite on Carnarvon that lead his decease. I guess this would be something to see in on doing a determination on whether or non the expletive is existent.

Another thing to see is the Gallic scientist, Sylvain Gandon, who has published a survey back uping the theory of a expletive on the grave & # 8211 ; in the signifier of a slayer bug that has someway

Brockway-9

survived 1000s of old ages. Dr Gandon s work, merely published in the proceeding of the Royal Society, suggests that Lord Carnarvon may hold been killed by bugs so malignant that they survived about 3000 old ages. The survey nevertheless, does non happen whether the slayer bug found its manner into the burial chamber by accident or was placed at that place deliberately. Gandon, has shown how inordinately potent a cocktail of microscopic spores & # 8211 ; capable of lasting long periods outside a life host organic structure & # 8211 ; could go. The decease of Lord Carnarvon could potentially be explained by infection with a extremely deadly and really durable pathogen, said Dr Sylvania Gandon, who is a scientist at the Laboratoire vitamin D Ecologie in Paris. Meanwhile, Nicholas Reeves, an archaeologist and writer of The Complete Tutankhamen, said there were studies of a black fungus inside the grave ; Carnarvon was in hapless physical status when he reached Egypt and could hold suffered a fatal infection as a consequence. There are Fungis that can last in a curious enviroment like a grave and could good hold affected person like him, Reeves said. Reeves dismissed the thought of a expletive.

Gandon s research explains the theoretical nexus between the virulency of a pathogen & # 8211 ; a harmful bacteria, virus, or fungus & # 8211 ; and the length of clip it is able to last as a spore. When you enter a grave after 3,000 old ages, if there are pathogens that have survived within it, the theory predicts that they will hold a really high virulency, Gandon said. In his survey, he showed that if a individual has more than one strain of an unwellness viing for infinite inside his or her organic structure, each consecutive coevals of it should germinate to go more powerful ; the disease would so be able to last much longer. Gandon believes that his research could assist develop public wellness policies for infirmaries, where steps could be taken to cut down pathogen virulency. The work has been welcomed by an international squad of experts who have besides studied the nexus. Dr Dieter

Brockway-10

Ebert, a scientist at the University of Basel, Switzerland, felt a disease-carrying mosquito was more likely to hold killed Carnarvon, but agreed that Gandon s survey suggested a possible connexion between a pathogen s virulency and the length of service of its spores outside the host. It is non known how the spores got into the grave in the first topographic point. One conjecture is every bit good as the other. If the Egyptians were smart and truly wanted to do a expletive, said Gandon, they could hold taken a pathogen good known to them and set in the grave.

As seen, there are a batch of facts and fiction about King Tut. What if Howard Carter ne’er found the grave? How much of the ancient Egyptians would we cognize about? King Tut s grave has provided many replies to unlocking the yesteryear. So what if King Tut was a lesser Pharaoh. We are non the 1s to judge if he was a good swayer or non. We merely know all things that he has brought to us. Even if there is a expletive, we still have gained valuable from the findings. I think it has been more good than bad. I hope this paper has answered some your inquiries about this subject. I genuinely have learned a batch by making this study. Possibly even someday I ll be able to take a visit to the Egyptian Museum to see all of his hoarded wealths and properties. Believe me, it would be a learning experience for all.