THE NATIVE AMERICANS
Researched by Petrov Andrey 11B, School & # 185 ; 9.
Excessively frequently the Indian is associated with the Hair raising & # 8216 ; cowpunchers and Indians & # 8217 ; movies where the Indians are ever portrayed as the & # 8216 ; villains & # 8217 ; , or they are seen through the idyllic love verse forms or vocals.
The true narrative of the American Indian is much different. It is one of the most barbarous narratives of race murder in modern history.
The original, pre-conquest population of North America is estimated as from 10 to 12 million. Equally many as 280 distinguishable Aboriginal societies existed in North America prior to Columbus. They spoke about 450 distinguishable linguistic communications. The Indian peoples developed great civilisations, most notably those of the Incas and the Aztecs, and they contributed a great trade to universe civilization and the public assistance of the human race: they domesticated maize, murphies, peanuts, Piper nigrum, tomatoes, Cucurbita pepos, Ananas comosuss, coca, and other veggies and fruits ; they cultivated baccy, and made finds of at least 59 drugs that are use today in medical scientific discipline.
The twelvemonth of 1622 marked the beginning of the century-long struggle between the Native Americans and the white colonists. The slogan & # 8216 ; The good Indian is a dead Indian & # 8217 ; was used for more than 200 old ages. The motivation for the race murder against the native peoples was to dispossess them of their land and resources and to acquire rid of people who could non be exploited. The means were varied and included non merely straight-out mass extinction, but besides slavery, bounty-hunting ( scalping for net income ) , slaughter of adult females and kids, the blackwash of leaders, decease by european-introduced diseases, the forced resettlement of peoples. Even the dictum in the Declaration of Independence that & # 8216 ; all work forces are created equal & # 8217 ; was non true for the Native Americana. They looked upon as barbarians, as non-persons, non even deserving adverting. The American authorities forced the Indians to subscribe pacts that were nil but tremendous land-robbery. They had to depend upon the good will ( or deficiency of it ) of the US authorities. By 1900 the Indians had been reduced to about 250,000. The Civil Rights Act of 1924 theoretically gave the Indians outside the reserves the same rights as any other citizen of the United States. But they were non given any opportunity to do usage of these rights.
In 1953 the United states
authorities passed the Relocation Act, giving the Indians the right to fade out their reserves and to settle in the metropoliss, and the Termination Act, which meant the revocation of all pacts signed between the authorities and the Indian folk, and an terminal to the particular position of the Indian. It was declared that the Indians today are capable to the same Torahs as other citizens. Thus the chance was instantly taken to widen civil and condemnable jurisprudence to the Indian reserves. The Indians have become incapacitated victims of the tribunals.
While a figure of Native American folks and states were to the full annihilated, some groups managed to last as cultural communities, like the 130,000 Navajo, the 72,000 Cherokee, the 60,000 Sioux and the 35,000 Pueblo.
Today there are about 764,000 American Indians. About 40 % of them live on reserves. There are about 200 of them. The largest is the Navajo Reservation with 70,000 dwellers. The non-reservation Indians live partially on rural countries near the reserve or in urban communities, where they have been driven by economic necessity To seek for a occupation. There is a ample Indian population in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Phoenix, Albuquerque, Omaha, Minneapolis and Chicago. The societal and economic conditions found on reserves are awful: wretchedness, agony, transplant and corruptness are widespread. Most Indian places are dilapidated, insanitary and crowded. Many reserves have no running H2O and the lone H2O supply is pools, brooks and Wellss. There is a high decease rate for kids and a high self-destruction rate. The mean educational degree of all Indians is five school old ages. Even a United States Commission on Civil Rights noted in 1973 that the Indian was the poorest American, the most disregarded and laden national minority in the state.
All this at the underside of the stuggle of the Indians for civil rights. In 1968 the American Indian Movement was founded in Minneapolis. AIM tries to unite all bing Indian organisations and better life in the Indian ghettos. In 1973 the American Indian motion demanded an scrutiny of the 371 pacts that had been violated by the US authorities. The Longest Walk from California to Washington, D.C in 1978 was besides initiated to convey national attending to the Indians & # 8217 ; jobs.
The Indians experience sympathy and solidarity from inside the United States and from abroad.