Utopia Or Dystopia Essay, Research Paper
English 4 CP
May 11, 1998
Utopia or Dystopia
All through life humanity attempts to obtain a universe in which one can populate with enjoyment, equality,
equity, and felicity. Many great authors have created Utopian universes that the reader can
see and research. To make a perfect topographic point compels the author to compose novels that deal with
utopia. Peoples see them selves in a topographic point where it is fun and gratifying. Writers see today & # 8217 ; s universe
non as the & # 8220 ; good topographic point & # 8221 ; ( Hermon, Holman ) . The universe today has many wars, diseases, and universe
broad hungriness. It takes many stairss to bring forth a Utopian universe and is why making a Utopia is no
easy undertaking. Other type of universe that is opposite of Utopia is dystopia. Dystopia is a topographic point where in
literary significance would be a, & # 8220 ; bad topographic point & # 8221 ; ( Snodgrass ) . Novels such as Brave New World,
Fahrenheit 451, and 1984 are dystopian novels. In Aldous Huxley & # 8217 ; s Brave New World, takes the
Individuality and has made felicity and enjoyment of life in to an unreal feeling with the invariable
presence of haoma. Hope of accomplishing utopia world in this universe obtains dystopia by mass
cloning that destroys humanity. In Ray Bradbury & # 8217 ; s Fahrenheit 451, the accountants of this universe attempt
to accomplish Utopia but in bend range dystopia were knowledge is gone. In George Orwells 1984,
achieve dystopia by the interior party who strive for domination by commanding love and the person
head. In Once and Future King, T.H. White creates a Utopian universe where the thought of equality,
peace, equity, and felicity appears as a consequence of King Arthur & # 8217 ; s influence. Novel shows how one
single tries his whole life endeavoring to accomplish Utopia. The novel shows that the life clip of one
individual is non plenty to obtain this utopia as King Arthur has to past his thoughts for the hereafter
coevalss. In Edward Bellamy & # 8217 ; s Looking Backward, constructs the perfect Utopia where the
single, love, and cognition are pattern unlike the other universes. Looking Backward, and
Once and Future King, did what the other novels did non ; it strives for Utopia and reaches it. Novels
that reach utopia supports and works the thoughts of individuality, love, and cognition into the society ;
whereas the dystopian novels eliminate such thoughts believing it will take to utopia.
George Orwell presents a universe to the reader where there is no opportunity for a utopia whereas
the citizens see this universe as a utopia due to telescreens, propaganda & # 8217 ; s and brainwashing that leads
to a society of no desires or ideas. Citizens are non allowed to hold personal ideas or feelings
due to the telescreens that destroys the single head. Telescreens is a designs that is a two manner
interacting telecasting set that the Party uses to maintain people from believing. The telescreens are
monitored by a force called the Thought Police. & # 8220 ; Thought constabularies plugged in on any single
wire & # 8230 ; -in the premise that every sound you made was over heard & # 8221 ; ( Orwell 7 ) . We see how this is
forced greatly on the people when Winston has to conceal himself from telescreens merely to compose down
some of his ideas. Huge postings with large eyes reminds the people that Big Brother is watching
them. This is the changeless brainwashing the citizen go trough as they are attached at a immature age to
love Big Brother and one time hooked the party controls them for the remainder of there lives. All the
brainwashing of changeless propaganda & # 8217 ; s and telescreen turns the people in the society into drones
with merely one desire, to love Big Brother.
In 1984 the society obtains true power and maintains dystopia by commanding the power of love
both filial and romantic. Children are brainwash at a immature age non to love, but undercover agent against their
parents therefore destructing the filial love. The kids are rise to turn up and love merely Big Brother.
Party has made the fondness of doing love to another as a iniquitous act. & # 8220 ; The purpose of the Party was
non simply to forestall work forces and adult females from organizing truenesss which it might non be able to command.
Its existent, undeclared intent was to take all pleasance from the sexual act & # 8230 ; ..The party was seeking
to kill the sex inherent aptitude by falsifying it and soiling it & # 8221 ; ( Orwell 57 ) . Understanding that sex was apart of
love it was made to believe to be a wickedness, but seen right by Party to hold sex to derive new members.
The Party still had other step to command love for it is the force that makes their true power.
The party uses the Ministry of Love that implements anguish to maintain control of love to accomplish
complete domination. Pain of anguish is to much to bare as it can deprive love and coerce one to betrayal
as one would make anything to halt the hurting. & # 8220 ; I don & # 8217 ; t attention who it is or what you do to them. I & # 8217 ; ve got
a married woman and three kids & # 8230 ; You can take the whole batch of them and cut their pharynxs in forepart of my
eyes, and I & # 8217 ; ll stand and watch it. But non room 101! & # 8221 ; ( 195 ) . Here is an illustration of a captive who
has been tortured for a long clip by the Ministry of Love and does non desire anymore. Due to this
inordinate hurting he is willing to see his ain partner and kids killed in forepart of him for the love of the
party and non for his household. This is the same procedure that Winston and Julia went through as they
betray each other.
Winston and Julia terrible anguish destroys the romantic love and leads to their common treachery
as they turn to love Big Brother that made them believe the society they lived in was perfect. This is
power that the Party obtains and controls in this dystopia. & # 8220 ; Never once more will you be capable of love,
or friendly relationship, or joy of life, or laughter, or wonder, or bravery, or unity. You will be hollow.
We shall squash you empty, and so we shall make full you with ourselves & # 8221 ; ( 211 ) . Through immense
anguish leads to the treachery of Winston and Julia, & # 8220 ; I betrayed you & # 8221 ; she said baldly. & # 8220 ; I betrayed
you, .. & # 8221 ; ( Orwell 240 ) . After they were drained of the love for each other they were filled by love of
Large Brother. This is ground why the people of oceana are non capable to love on their ain but made
to love Big Brother through the power of anguish. With this in head this society controlled by party
sees it as utopia whereas it genuinely and unhappily a dystopia in readers eyes and will stay an dystopia. All
dystopian universes are likewise such as Brave New World, were their excessively contains like qualities and
opposite qualities to 1984.
Brave New World shows the individualism striped from its people who are forced to populate
brainwashed, segregated, and unfair without them cognizing of it ; the people of this futuristic universe
see it as utopia whereas the reader can clearly see it has dystopia. In this universe they have mastered
genetic sciences and are able to organize indistinguishable existences by the tonss that destroys individualism. This procedure
is called Bokanovsky & # 8217 ; s Process, & # 8220 ; Bokanovsky & # 8217 ; s Process is one of the major instruments of societal
stableness! ( Huxley 5 ) . Consequence of the Bokanovsky procedure is mass cloning which is non societal stableness it
is the devastation of humanity. No longer the single exist, the term person has a little significance
in this universe of similar faces. Accountants of this universe are still non done as they strip more of homo
In quest for utopia the accountants of Brave New World have created a caste system were at
birth many human natures are taken off ; the accountants act as God and make up one’s mind who gets what from
birth. One must inquire how a universe is equal when it comes to labour? Who gets to make up one’s mind who
becomes a refuse adult male or a company president? In this society their occupations are chosen before they
are decanted from their unreal birth. Society creates different degrees of worlds so that the lower
the category the lower quality of being. This is genuinely unfair as one group of worlds lose their homo
nature to turn both physically and mentally. Higher categories are non indistinguishable for they are made
different but are merely a little per centum of the entire population. The higher category is the 1 that
co-ordinates society while the true labour anchor comes from the lower category. To keep this
caste system the accountants must take great attempts to maintain felicity and pleasance for the castes
groups so they do what they are made to make.
Happiness in Brave New World is unreal with tonss of conditioning and the company of the
drug called haoma. All the people in this society go through conditioning. Conditioning takes off
free will to knowledge as it makes the citizens to larn whatever they are status. If a certain group
has to pick up refuse they will love to pick up refuse. There is no room for the single head
because the conditioning does non let the head to maturate in its ain manner that is why kids were
decanted and non born. & # 8220 ; For you must retrieve that in those yearss of gross live-bearing
reproduction, kids were ever brought up by their parents and non in State Conditioning
Centre & # 8221 ; ( Huxley 23 ) . The felicity that status brings to the caste works expeditiously. Sometimes
this unreal felicity needs a encouragement for the members of this society. The higher and lower caste
can sometimes see their wretchedness which is non intended by the accountants so these people are given
haoma. Soma induces pleasance in great sums and clears the head of bad feelings. Conditioning
and soma satisfies all pleasances so there is no demand for love.
In this universe & # 8217 ; s progresss to accomplish utopia be them many valuable points such as love both filial
and romantic. Decanting was the doomed of filial love because in this universe there are no female parents or
male parents. Citizens are non able to see romantic love because the accountant encourages and conditions
them to hold sex with many different people within their caste. No love is possible in this society
because true love is non wanted. Peoples of Brave New World see the love between a female parent and
kid gross outing. & # 8220 ; The spectacle of two immature adult females giving chest to their babes made her bloom
and turn away her face. She had ne’er seen anything so indecorous in her life & # 8221 ; ( Huxley 111 ) . Without
love for another decease is non seen. The lone manner they can see love is when they go to the barbarian
lands. The barbarian land is were John is from and through his eyes the reader can truly see this universe
The reader of Brave New World can see that the society has non reached utopia as can John
the Savage, but ironically the people of the society think other wise ; citizens believe they have
reached a province of life that many dream of. The people of this universe can non see this dystopia
whereas John can. Society disgust John because he is able to see clear without the conditioning and
haoma. & # 8220 ; & # 8216 ; O brave new universe that has such people in it. & # 8217 ; & # 8230 ; But the Savage had all of a sudden broken away
and was violently vomiting & # 8221 ; ( Huxley 63 ) . The society does non understand Johns reaction other so
that they see him as a barbarian. Society sees their universe as a Utopia and seek to demo John. & # 8220 ; Bernard
and Hemholtz show off Utopia to John. He is more fed up and Moody with each passing
twenty-four hours & # 8221 ; ( Carey 13 ) . It is dry that John is called the barbarian when he genuinely is non. & # 8220 ; But the cardinal sarcasm
in Huxley & # 8217 ; s evocation of the Baronial Savage thought is that although John Savage, as he comes to be
called, fits the romantic paradigm in that he has a natural self-respect and intelligence, he is non a
barbarian & # 8221 ; ( Guinevera 76 ) . This shows that Brave New World to a regular individual is non seen to be a
Utopia ; it is seen to be a dystopia. Another novel such as Fahrenheit 451 ranges for utopia but terminals
up with dystopia.
Ray Bradbury in Fahrenheit 451, shows a society that creates a universe of felicity without the
cause of hurting and confusion that leads to a universe with no ideas. The society believes that hurting
was doing dystopia along with confusion. So this society began to endeavor for complete felicity
believing that Utopia would shortly be reached. To free hurting they made devices to continuously pump in
happy ideas. Such devices were telecasting sets that wholly surround the room on all four
sides and headsets to quiet you down and set in happy ideas. & # 8220 ; ..in her ears the small seashells, the
thimble wirelesss tamped tight, and an electronic ocean of sound, of music and talk and music and speak
coming in & # 8230 ; of her wide-awake head & # 8221 ; ( Bradbury 11 ) . Shows how the society tries to maintain everyone
happy and free from hurting and confusion. This devises are non plenty for the human encephalon has many
ideas so the society has to seek to maintain the head free of any ideas other so happy ideas.
This universe believes that cognition from books causes to much contention, confusion, and
hurting so finally they became nonextant. Society wanted the people to be happy and non inquire why. In
order excessively due this society had to take away the single head that forms from the cognition it
receives. The beginning of cognition that the society looks upon to be bad was books. At first they
did non fire books as they thought they could merely shorten them. & # 8220 ; Authoritative cut to suit fifteen-minute
wireless shows, so cut once more to make full a two-minute book column & # 8230 ; whose sole cognition, as I say, of
Hamlet was a one-page digest in a book claimed: now at last you can read all the classics ; maintain up
with your neighbors. & # 8221 ; ( Bradbury 50 ) . By shortening books they believed it will do fewer ideas
therefore taking to less contention that leads to less confusion and eventually less hurting. It is the ideas
that put inquiries inside the head and this is what the society does non desire. Shortening books was
non plenty so they had to take more drastic steps.
In Fahrenheit 451 is a universe that does non allow the person show their ain ideas by
destructing all the books that help the human head to organize it & # 8217 ; s of alone single manner. In the
get downing, we see fire that is used to destruct books. & # 8220 ; It was a pleasance to fire. It was a particular
pleasance to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed & # 8221 ; ( 3 ) . This shows how fire is to be
seen throughout the novel as it destroys books that are knowledge. The devastation of books shows
that destructing books that creates individualism is non wanted by a unvarying society that the reader
sees as dystopia. As the books burn and become blacken is how the heads of many become, as
they no longer believe for the
mselves. Burning books is affectional from maintaining the heads clear of
ideas but non plenty so the society of Fahrenheit 451 velocity everything up.
In this so called utopia the society has to be on a fast yesteryear so they have no clip to believe or
inquiry ; merely be happy. Everything in this society is practically speed up. & # 8220 ; One column, two
sentences, a headline! Then, in mid-air, all vanishes! Whirl adult male & # 8217 ; s mind around approximately so fast under
pumping custodies of publishing houses, users, broadcasters that the centrifuge cracks off all unneeded,
time-wasting idea! & # 8221 ; ( Bradbury 50 ) . Even the instruction of cognition is speed up. & # 8220 ; School is
shortened, subject relaxed, doctrines, histories, linguistic communications dropped, English and spelling
bit by bit neglected, eventually about wholly neglected & # 8221 ; ( Bradbury 51 ) . This society keeps traveling
in front, no clip to see what is incorrect.
The society Fahrenheit 451 supports forcing themselves so they can be happy and no hurting ; they
make non look back and see their dystopia whereas Montag does as Clarisse makes him believe.
Montag has been pushed along with society until he met Clarisse. It took a inquiry from Clarisse,
& # 8220 ; Are you Happy? & # 8221 ; ( Bradbury 9 ) , and an old lady who burned with her books to alter Montag & # 8217 ; s
positions about the society he lives in. Montag shortly became a Rebel and went against the ways of the
society. Accountants of this universe kills Clarisse since she was a loose cannon of ideas to the
society. This is what the society has come to as it will due anything to continue their small ideas of
felicity. Montag is an illustration of what ideas and books can due to a citizen in this futuristic
society. The power of idea can open the eyes and genuinely see how the society truly is ; in pandemonium. In
Once and Future King shows a novel that is unlike this dystopia for it creates a Utopian topographic point.
T.H. White & # 8217 ; s, Once and Future King brings a Utopia in which King Arthur constructs from his
childhood lessons from Merlin, but is in danger by the instructions of Toirdealbhach to Arthur & # 8217 ; s ill made
boy and the Orkney male childs. These lesson that King Arthur experienced in his childhood is when he
became a fish, an emmet, and a goose. As a fish he learned that might right, but learns from this lesson
that might is non right. When the immature wart was an emmet he learned that war was incorrect and non
worth it. As an emmet he saw merely how of import the single head is. When wart took the skies with
the geese he learned about districts and boundaries and learned when to contend and when non to
battle. Arthur & # 8217 ; s boy and the Orkney male childs were thought the old ways that will be the ruin of
Arthur. Still with all the lessons taught by Merlin Arthur was able to make his Utopian society.
King Arthur creates the Utopian society as he pictured in his head were the person, thought,
and love can be free with peace and equality. Arthur society was dining with people who were
free and able to walk around without injury.
Where the black knights had hoved, & # 8230 ; now any virgin could walk around the whole
state, even with gold and decorations upon her individual, without the least fright of injury & # 8230 ; All the
oppressive giants were dead, all the unsafe firedrakes had been put out of action. ( White 423 )
To obtain equality Arthur made the unit of ammunition tabular array so that no 1 was above the other. & # 8220 ; & # 8216 ; There will be a
batch of green-eyed monster, & # 8217 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8217 ; Knights in this order of yours stating that they are the best 1, and desiring to sit at
top of the table. & # 8217 ; & # 8216 ; Then we must hold a unit of ammunition tabular array, with no top & # 8217 ; & # 8221 ; ( White 265 ) . After making the
unit of ammunition tabular array he had knights flocking to his land. In clip King Arthur creates his perfect society.
In this society King Arthur makes new ways of learning to alter old ways that caused the yesteryear
King Arthur wants his Utopia to endeavor so he tries to learn the new coevalss of the new ways,
but he has challenge by the Orkney male childs who have been thought the old ways. King Arthur wants
to learn the kids when they are immature so when they get older they are non corrupt. & # 8220 ; The most
of import thing, will be to catch them immature. The old knights, the 1s we are contending against, will
be largely to old to larn. We must engender up a new coevals of gallantry for the hereafter & # 8221 ; ( White
265 ) . This was Arthur & # 8217 ; s end to accomplish that will assure him a perfect society forever. However
this did non go on as King Arthur & # 8217 ; s ain boy along with the Orkney boys pervert his society.
Dystopia came upon the society that Arthur tries so difficult to keep. All of Arthur & # 8217 ; s thoughts and
values were at the threshold of extinction. King Arthur & # 8217 ; s last hopes of his society was to go through his thoughts
to a immature page named Tom before his decease. & # 8220 ; You see, the King wanted there to be person
left, who would retrieve their celebrated thought & # 8221 ; ( White 636 ) . Tom was told of all the thoughts of Arthur & # 8217 ; s
utopia and hopes one twenty-four hours that the society one time once more will endeavor. In Looking Backward present a
universe like no other where there is no opportunity of corruptness as in King Arthur & # 8217 ; s society.
Edward Bellamy & # 8217 ; s Looking Backward, takes a dystopian universe and alterations it around to the
perfect Utopia were no longer be hungriness, war, and detest but alternatively cognition, single, and love
endures. In the universe Julian lives in contains war, hungriness, offense, and has many differences. For Julian
ne’er thinks about this distopic universe because he and his household are affluent. West goes to kip
one twenty-four hours and wakes up in the twentieth-century after being in a suspended enchantment. Mr. Leete brings
West out of this enchantment and becomes his usher to utopia. West learns through Mr. Leete about the
past Boston which has alteration in to the following millenary.
Boston in the twentieth-century takes attention of the individualism and allows them to organize in their
single manner. This Utopian society expects the people to due what best fit them excessively due and
mature in their ain manner. & # 8220 ; The most delicate possible trial is needed here, and so we leave the
inquiry whether a adult male shall be a encephalon or manus worker wholly to him to settle & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 137 ) . This
shows that society does non force thoughts on to the citizens. Citizens are allowed to endeavor within their
ain endowments. & # 8220 ; Public policy is to promote all to develop suspected endowments & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 138 ) . If one
wants to be a author he or she can be a author. No 1 in society will state or do one due
something against their will other so to take part in society. Each citizen in the new Boston is
taken attention of, & # 8220 ; The state guarantees the raising, instruction, and comfy care of every
citizen from the cradle to the grave & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 149 ) . The society treats their citizens as equal were no
one gets more than the other.
New Boston is a utopia where the citizens can see themselves as peers whereas in the past old
Boston was filled with unequal societal position. Minds of the citizens in New Boston do non cognize what
is non equal and West inquiries Mr. Leete. Mr. Leete response is, & # 8220 ; It is exactly because we are
all societal peers whose equality nil can compromise & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 168 ) . Mr. Leete tells West that
all of the citizens get a twelvemonth recognition of 4 thousand dollars no affair where they work. West asks how
workers are paid the same if one worker produces more than the other. Mr. Leete responds by,
& # 8220 ; The right of adult male to maintenance at the state & # 8217 ; s table depends on the fact that he is a adult male, and non
on the sum of wellness and strength he may hold, so long as he does his best & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 179 ) . The
society sees attempt applied by the citizens as equal no affair how smaller or greater.
In new Boston society give everyone equal position and does non split or divide among caste groups
that is displayed in dystopian universes.
Dividing up groups by castes or societal category leads to dystopia and is why it has been removed
in new Boston. & # 8220 ; There are no privileged few, no overpaid managerial category, and no sexism or
bondage deputing drab occupations to adult females, nonwhites, or an bowed down subclass & # 8221 ; ( Snodgrass
324 ) . This citation shows the benefits of non holding category and can be seen in true Utopian universes.
Having such categories create dystopia as it did in Brave New World. & # 8220 ; It is the worst thing about any
system which divides work forces, or allows them to be divided, into categories and castes, that it weakens the
sense of a common humanity & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 195 ) . In new Boston the people are seen to be more societal
due to the fact that they are all peers. As everyone is equal there is no hatred between people and
offense has been made to nil by extinguishing money.
Utopia strives to rectify what is done incorrectly from the yesteryear so they have taken money that
causes lust, greed and enticements off from the society. New Boston has figured out that
extinguishing money will free their social jobs covering with offense. & # 8220 ; Result from the inequality in
the ownerships of persons ; want tempted the hapless, lecherousness of greater additions & # 8230 ; money was the motivation
of all offense, the taproot of a huge toxicant growing & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 225 ) . Without offense new Boston is in
peace and harmoniousness, & # 8220 ; As with other utopias, the Boston of A.D. 2000 is a dream universe that suffers
no lawlessness and subsists in harmoniousness and peace ( Snodgrass 325 ) . Knowledge in this universe is
available and lief given.
New Boston maintains utopia by non coercing certain cognition to the kids in schools, but
offers copiousness sum of cognition. Children get cognition in certain countries of professions
and humanistic disciplines. Society gives the immature citizens till the age of 21 to larn in the country they best
want. This procedure is affectional because the cognition is non being force to them that causes them to
take in less. & # 8220 ; Harmonizing to Edith, because of the efficaciousness of public instruction in accomplishments and gustatory sensations & # 8230 ; Art
flourishes. Libraries continue to stock English authoritative & # 8221 ; ( Snodgrass 325 ) . In this utopia cognition is
fluent and the idea of each person is wanted.
Love prospers in new Boston as it shows Edith showing herself towards West. After waking
up in new Boston West has been experiencing lonely of all time since. West has feelings for Edith but does non
state her for he is diffident. Due to freedom of look in new Boston Edith does non experience shy as she
expresses her love to West. Edith tells West that she would hold told him earlier but was afraid to
I know misss were expected to conceal their feelings in your twenty-four hours, and I was awfully afraid of
flooring you. Ah me, how difficult it must hold been for them to hold ever had to hide their
love like a mistake. Why did they believe it such a shame to love any one boulder clay they had been given
permission to fall in love? ( Bellamy 293 ) This shows how the society feels openly about love. New
Boston has no limitations on love and therefore maintains utopia. With all this great alterations that are
made from the yesteryear from old Boston to the new Boston can be seen as the journey back to the
garden of Eden ; the really first Utopia.
In a higher note Bellamy & # 8217 ; s Looking Backward, is society that maintains utopia where citizens
are going more and more guiltless and therefore in scriptural footings are traveling back to the Garden of
Eden were force, greed, and inequality does non be. As West was in this garden like society he
was force to go forth when he went to kip and woolgather he was in old Boston. While back once more in
old Boston West sees true dystopia of corruptness, offenses, greed and inequality. West wants to travel
back to new Boston ; wants to travel back to the garden of Eden. When West one time once more awaken he is
back in the hereafter and is so happy he cries, & # 8220 ; I was panting. The cryings were streaming down my face,
and I Quivered in every nervus & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 310 ) . At the terminal of the fresh Bellamy puts a image in the
readers mind were West and Edith represent Adam and Even in the garden of Eden. & # 8220 ; Edith. fresh as
the forenoon, had come into the garden and was garnering flowers. I hastened to fall to her.
Kneeling before her, with my face in the dust, I confessed with cryings how small was my worth to
breath the air of this aureate century & # 8221 ; ( Bellamy 311 ) . This shows that new Boston will go on to be
Hubris is inordinate pride that the closed minded societies have shown in 1994, Brave New
World, and Fahrenheit 451 where they merely see utopia when they take off cognition,
individualism, and love which in bend causes dystopia. The quest for Utopia was found in all the
novels, but merely two made it and the remainder became dystopia ironically still believing it was utopia.
When great societies attempts to obtain utopia they become blind non seeing that they have caused
dystopia. This is non merely seen with utopia as this is true for any great substances such as acquiring the
American Dream or acquiring one million dollars. Peoples and societies get wrapped up in seeking to
make excessively far with their custodies and stop up losing their organic structures. This is why TH. White & # 8217 ; s Once and
Future King and Edward Bellamy & # 8217 ; s Looking Backwards were able to make their Utopian societies.
King Arthur & # 8217 ; s society did non extinguish all the things that caused dystopia but assorted them into his
society by the new ways and old ways. In new Boston they achieve their Utopia by non merely
extinguishing but retracing their society from the wrongs of the old society. All the novels
have dreams of Utopia and that may be their success or ruin.
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