Water Quality Dissolved Oxygen Biology Essay

Figure 4.1 show the temperature and DO concentration in EM treated H2O sample and control H2O sample. The reading has been taken one time in 2 yearss by utilizing YSI 52 CE DO metre ( S.N 06L1446 ) for 26 yearss in a row in unit mg/L ( ppm ) . The optimal scope of DO concentrations for tilapia civilization is between 5.00 ppm – 8.30 ppm. Lower than 5.00 ppm, the fish will straiten and if the concentration of DO less than 2.00 ppm the authority of fish dies is high.

Figure 4.1: Concentration of DO in EM Tank and Control Tank

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Base on figure 4.1, the concentration of DO get downing from twenty-four hours 0 boulder clay twenty-four hours 26th non shown an obvious changed in both H2O samples. At twenty-four hours 0, the DO concentration for EM treated H2O sample is 5.06 ppm and at the terminal of the survey which is at twenty-four hours 26th, the concentration of DO in EM treated H2O sample is 5.15 ppm. The highest concentration of DO in was appeared at twenty-four hours 24th which is 5.92 ppm. In contrast, the lowest concentration of DO in EM treated H2O sample is 4.79 ppm which at twenty-four hours 10th. For EM treated H2O, the DO concentration at twenty-four hours 8th ( 4.86 ppm ) and at twenty-four hours 10th ( 4.79 ppm ) were recorded below the optimal concentration.

Conversely, the highest concentration of DO in Control H2O sample is 5.83 ppm which at twenty-four hours 8th. On the contrary, the lowest concentration was recorded at twenty-four hours 20th which is 4.88 ppm. Furthermore, the DO concentration at twenty-four hours 4th ( 4.97 ppm ) and twenty-four hours 20th ( 4.88 ppm ) appeared at low so optimal concentration. Even though the concentrations of DO at both yearss are somewhat low so optimal concentration, this was non affected the Tilapia civilization.

Theoretically, the temperature of H2O sample will impact the concentration of DO. Oxygen becomes less soluble in H2O as the temperature increases ( Geer and Kamila, 2005 ) . Meaning that, warm H2O is less capable in fade outing the gases like O while cold H2O has greater ability in keeping O. How of all time, those yearss which the DO concentration were shown non in the optimal scope, the temperature was lower ( 24 & A ; deg ; C ) compared to others ( Figure 4.1 ) . However, this fact was assumed to demo negative consequence due to the astuteness of the investigation when DO concentration reading. More deep of H2O from the surface, the temperature and DO are lower comparison to the temperature and DO at the surface. Therefore, the more deep the investigation of DO metre goes from the surface during reading, the lower the temperature and the DO concentration.

In decision, the concentrations of DO for both armored combat vehicles are about the same. No significantly changed in DO concentrations due to the aeration system that has been used to provide the O. Therefore, the hypothesis can be made as the used of EM are non impacting the degrees of DO in Tilapia civilization. The degree of DO is chiefly control by aeration system. Even the environing temperature can impact the DO concentration, but it is non bespeak an obvious alteration to the DO concentration.

Temperature

Temperature besides acts as an of import parametric quantity which needs to be checked in fish civilization. The temperature of EM treated H2O samples were in scope of 24-27 & A ; deg ; C and in control H2O samples were in the scope of 24-26 & A ; deg ; C. From figure 4.2, the informations had shown there was no important alteration through out the whole survey. More over, the temperature of the H2O for both armored combat vehicles was non off from the optimum scope which is between 20 and 35 & A ; deg ; C.

Figure 4.2: Temperature in EM Tank and Control Tank

For EM treated H2O sample, the lowest temperature recorded was 24 & A ; deg ; C, while the highest temperature was 27 & A ; deg ; C. In contrast, the lowest temperature for control H2O sample was same with EM treated H2O sample which is 24 & A ; deg ; C but the highest temperature recorded in control H2O sample is 26 & A ; deg ; C.

In general, the temperature for both armored combat vehicles was control by the environment. Due to the location of the civilization armored combat vehicles which was under the roof, the heat from the Sun are non straight affect the temperature. Furthermore, in showery twenty-four hours the temperature reading is non dropped significantly because the rain H2O does non drop into the civilization armored combat vehicle and the volume of H2O in civilization armored combat vehicles remain the same.

Entire Ammonia Nitrogen NH3-N ( TAN )

Figure 4.3 show the concentration of Total Ammonia Nitrogen ( TAN ) in EM treated H2O sample and control H2O sample. Get downing from twenty-four hours 0 to twenty-four hours 10th, the TAN concentration in both H2O samples increased rather in the same manner. At twenty-four hours 0, the TAN concentration in EM treated H2O sample is 1.64 ppm and rose to 4.85 ppm at twenty-four hours 10th. On the other manus, the TAN concentration in control H2O sample rose from 1.65 ppm at twenty-four hours 0 to 4.90 ppm at twenty-four hours 10th. However, the concentrations of TAN in both H2O samples show major differences get downing from twenty-four hours 12th to twenty-four hours 26th. The TAN concentration in control H2O sample started to acumulate at higher rate compared to EM treated H2O sample from 4.92 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th to 5.25 ppm at twenty-four hours 26th. On the contrary, TAN concentration in EM treated H2O sample show in decreased ( 33.70 % ) from 4.57 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th to 3.03 ppm in twenty-four hours 26th.

Figure 4.3: Concentrations of Entire Ammonia NH3-N

The waste from fish palette was proven to be the chief subscriber to the TAN concentration in H2O. For that ground, the concentration of TAN in control H2O sample was significantly increased by clip. The ammonia rhythm in control armored combat vehicle was non effectual plenty to cut down the concentration of TAN. This fact is chiefly due to the deficiency of bacteriums that utilized ammonium hydroxide. In contrast, the reduced concentration of TAN get downing from twenty-four hours 12th to twenty-four hours 26th in EM treated H2O sample was chiefly due to the used of EM intervention. The micro-organism in EM were proven to be effectual in cut downing the TAN concentration. Furthermore, the micro-organisms such as Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter that can do usage of ammonium hydroxide as energy beginning may be include in the pool of micro-organisms in EM.

Besides, the concentration of TAN will impact the pH of the H2O ( refer chapter 4.1.4 ) and the concentration of Un-ionized ammonium hydroxide ( refer chapter 4.1.5 ) . Since ammonium hydroxide is alkalic, it will bespeak higher pH value when its concentration additions. Furthermore, the greater the concentration of TAN, the higher concentration of Un-ionized ammonium hydroxide will bring forth in the H2O system ( Ruth and Craig, 2005 )

pH

The value of the pH has an consequence toward the toxicity of ammonium hydroxide and increasing in pH will increase the toxicity of ammonium hydroxide. The recommended value for Tilapia culturing is between 6 – 8 ppm ( Tilapia culturing technique, Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian MADA ) . If pH readings are beyond this scope, fish growing is reduced and at values below 4 or above 10, mortalities will happen.

Figure 4.4: The pH Values in EM Tank and Control Tank

Figure 4.4 shows the pH value for EM treated H2O sample and control H2O sample. The pH values for both armored combat vehicles were increased for the first 10 yearss. At twenty-four hours 10th where the EM solution was introduced to the EM armored combat vehicle, the pH values for EM treated H2O samples were started to diminish. On the contrary, the pH values for control H2O sample still demo an addition.

For the first 10 yearss, the pH value for EM treated H2O sample addition from 7.13 ppm to 7.46 ppm. While, pH value in control H2O sample had been increase from 6.98 ppm to 7.81 ppm. After 2.5 L cultured of EM was added to the EM armored combat vehicle at twenty-four hours 10th, the pH value in EM treated H2O sample has somewhat decreased from 7.46 ppm to 7.27 ppm. While, the pH values in control H2O sample still increased until 8.31 ppm toward the terminal of the survey ( twenty-four hours 26th ) . For EM treated H2O sample, the value of pH remain in the recommended pH value and still suited for the civilization of Tilapia. Whereas, the pH values in control armored combat vehicle at twenty-four hours 14th, 16th, 18th, 22nd, 24th and 26th ( figure 4.4 ) has go beyond the recommended scope of pH value for Tilapia civilization ( 6-8 ppm ) .

These consequences proved that the usage of EM in aquaculture will cut down the pH degree to suited pH scope for the Tilapia civilization. Since the pH value is related with concentration of entire ammonium hydroxide in H2O, the used of EM will work out both jobs. Hence the production cost will diminish and the productiveness of Tilapia will increase by utilizing EM.

Un-ionized Ammonia NH3-N

Figure 4.5 shows the concentration of un-ionized ammonium hydroxide ( UIA ) in both EM treated H2O sample and control H2O sample. UIA is a toxic signifier and the toxicity begins every bit low as 0.05 ppm. If the UIA is higher than 0.05 ppm, the fish gill is being damaged. As the concentration rises above 0.05 ppm it causes more and more harm and at 2.0 ppm fish will decease. The UIA can be calculated from the concentration of TAN multiply by the Fraction Factor ( Appendix 7 ) . Prior to the computation of the UIA, the pH and temperature of the H2O sample need to be determined.

Figure 4.5: Concentrations of Un-ionized Ammonia ( UIA )

It was shown that the concentration of UIA in EM treated H2O sample shown an addition from twenty-four hours 0, 0.0098 ppm to 0.0686 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th. The concentration of UIA is related to the concentration of TAN. Since there was an increasing in TAN concentration in EM treated H2O sample for the first 10 yearss ( Figure 4.3 ) , hence, the UIA in EM treated H2O sample was increased from twenty-four hours 0 to twenty-four hours 12th. However, after EM has been introduced, the concentration of UIA was somewhat decreased ( 57.58 % ) from 0.0686 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th to 0.0291 ppm at twenty-four hours 26th. This happened because the decreasing of TAN ( 33.70 % ) in EM treated H2O sample from twenty-four hours 12th to twenty-four hours 26th ( Figure 4.3 ) .

On the other manus, the concentration of UIA in control H2O sample was increased with clip. The concentration of UIA at twenty-four hours 0 is 0.0099 ppm and rose significantly to 0.4620 ppm at twenty-four hours 26th. This discernible fact was due to the increasing of TAN in control H2O sample. In general, the higher the concentration of TAN, the grater the concentration of UIA in H2O sample.

Nitrite NO2-N

Figure 4.6 show the concentration of nitrite in EM treated H2O sample and control H2O sample. Started from twenty-four hours 0 to twenty-four hours 10th, the nitrite concentration in both H2O samples increased in the similar mode. At twenty-four hours 0, the nitrite concentration in EM treated H2O sample is 0.036 ppm and rose to 0.427 ppm at twenty-four hours 10th. On the other manus, the nitrite concentration in control H2O sample rose from 0.042 ppm at twenty-four hours 0 to 0.453 ppm at twenty-four hours 10th. But after add-on of EM into EM treated armored combat vehicle, the concentration of nitrite in both H2O sample show perceptibly differences get downing from twenty-four hours 12th to twenty-four hours 26th. The nitrite concentration in control H2O sample started to increase at higher rate compared to EM treated H2O sample from 4.92 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th to 5.25 ppm at twenty-four hours 26th. In contrast, nitrite concentration in EM treated H2O sample show in decreased from 0.299 ppm at twenty-four hours 12th to 0.193 ppm in twenty-four hours 26th ( 35.45 % ) .

Figure 4.6: Concentration of Nitrite NO2-N in EM Treated Water Sample and Control Water Sample

Since nitrite is the merchandise of the ammonium hydroxide metamorphosis in nitrogen rhythm, the concentration of TAN will impact the concentration of nitrite. In decision, EM was proven in cut downing the concentration of nitrite due to the reduction of TAN concentration.

Fish Sample

Microwave Distillation Solid Phase Micro Extraction ( MD-SPME )

Gas Chromatography Mass Selective ( GC-MS ) sensor should be used in this analysis. Due to some proficient job that can non be accounted, instead, Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionized Detector ( GC-FID ) has been used. However, the chromatograph did non demo the extremum of involvement but show a batch of unknown extremums.

This job was believed due to the GC type that has been used. The GC-MS is more sensitive in sensing because it sensing is based on the mass of the compounds. In contrast, GC-FID sensing is based on ionisation. More over, GC-FID that being used is equipped with ultra-5 column which is semi-polar alternatively of ultra-1 column which is non-polar that needs to be used. Since GEO and MIB is semi volatile polar compound, the used of ultra-5 as a column is non good for separation of these compounds. Further more, the method used is well-matched with GC-MS but the same method has been used when running GC FID.

Conversely, sample readying besides one of the factor that contributed to this job. Methanol has been used as a dissolver in dilution of the criterion samples which are GEO and MIB. Even though the dissolver has been filtered with 0.45 µm and 0.2 µm filter membrane, but there were still drosss or contaminant occurs in the criterion samples. This drosss and contamination has shown in the chromatograph as unknown extremum ( Appendix 14-16 ) . How of all time, after methyl alcohol ( solvent ) or space has been injected in GC, all the unknown extremums have been identified from the dissolver itself ( Appendix 16 ) .

Therefore, as an option, the centripetal rating method has been used to look into the consequence of EM in riddance of off-flavor in Red Tilapia.

Centripetal Evaluation

Figure 4.7 and figure 4.8 show the graph of Average Score of Sensory Evaluation for EM treated fish sample and control fish sample. The four properties that has been judged for 5 rating session were texture of the fish filet, crude gustatory sensation of the fish, wet and acceptableness. The major property focused in this survey was crude gustatory sensation in fish.

The rating session was carried out one time in 3 yearss. It was started with first session that was held on twenty-four hours 13th followed by 2nd session on twenty-four hours 17th, 3rd session on twenty-four hours 21st, 4th session on twenty-four hours 25th, and last session on twenty-four hours 29th. At each session, six fish samples have been introduced to the panellist consisted of EM treated fish samples and command fish samples.

Figure 4.7: Average Mark of Sensory Evaluation in EM Treated Fish Sample

Figure 4.8: Average Mark of Sensory Evaluation in Control Fish Sample

Texture

The first property that has been study is texture of fish sample. The mark vary from 1 for difficult to 5, soft. Based on figure 4.9, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample and control fish sample non demo important differences. For the 1st session till the 3rd session, the mean mark given by the panellist for EM treated fish sample and control fish sample are about the same. It was found that the 4th session of rating, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample is 4.2 while for Control fish sample, the mean mark is 3.5. On the other manus, at 5th session, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample is 4.1 compared to command sample which is 3.6.

Figure 4.9: Average Mark in texture for EM treated fish sample and control fish sample Harmonizing to Evaluation Session

In general, the fish samples that had treated with EM have higher quality of texture comparison to command sample ( Zulkafli A. R. Pemahaman asas-asas mutuair: panduan mudah untuk penternak. Unpublished note, Pusat Penyelidikan Perikanan Airtawar ) . Further study need to transport out to corroborate this fact because the consequence of EM on fish texture is clip devouring procedure and demand longer analyze period to see the consequence. From the Analysis of Variances ( ANOVA ) , the information was significantly differ with P & A ; lt ; 0.005 ( Appendix 16 ) .

Crude Taste

Figure 4.10 show the distribution of crude gustatory sensation in EM treated fish sample and Control fish samples. The mark vary from 1 ( really dislike ) , 2 ( disfavor ) , 3 ( neither disfavor nor like ) , 4 ( like ) and 5 ( really like ) . From the figure 4.12, the crude gustatory sensations in EM treated fish sample show drastically increase in quality. In 1st session, the mean mark is 2.7 which mean the panellist non certain whether they like or dislike. But at the terminal of the survey, at 5th session about the full panellist agreed that the crude gustatory sensation in EM treated fish sample has decreased and give an mean mark 4.5 ( about really similar ) .

Figure 4.10: Average Mark in Earthy Taste for EM treated Fish Sample and Control fish Sample Harmonizing to Evaluation Session

On the other manus, the control fish samples did non demo in drastic betterment on crude gustatory sensation. The mean mark are changing from 2.1 ( disfavor ) for 1st session to 2.8 ( neither disfavor nor like ) at the last session. The panellist agreed that the crude gustatory sensation is still in the fish sample after 5 session of rating.

As a hypothesis, the used of EM will cut down the crude gustatory sensation in the fish tissues. The crude gustatory sensation had alteration from disfavor to about wish really much after intervention of EM to the fish sample. Based on this survey, 16 to 20 yearss after intervention with EM was plenty to cut down the crude gustatory sensation in fish sample. From the Analysis of Variances ( ANOVA ) , the information was significantly differ with P & A ; lt ; 0.005 ( Appendix 17 ) .

Moisture

Figure 4.11 show the mean mark for wet in EM treated fish samples and command fish samples. The tonss vary from 1 ( dry ) to 5 ( moisture ) . For the 1st session, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample is 3.6 while for control fish sample, the mean mark is 3.3. Furthermore, the mean mark for control fish samples at 2nd and 3rd session are similar which is 3.2. Towards the terminal of the rating session, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample is 4.1 compared to command fish sample 3.9.

Figure 4.11: Average Mark in Moisture for EM treated Fish Sample and Control fish Sample Harmonizing to Evaluation Session

In decision, the effects of utilizing EM toward the wet content in fish sample are non clearly defined in this survey. Since there is no important different in wet content between EM treated fish sample and control fish sample, the hypothesis can be made as EM was non affect the wet contain in fish tissue. May be other factors such as the familial of the fish, aging or the manner of sample readying will impact the wet contain in fish. Therefore, farther survey must be carry on by utilizing different methods to find the wet content in fish. From the Analysis of Variances ( ANOVA ) , the information was significantly differ with P & A ; lt ; 0.005 ( Appendix 18 ) .

Acceptability

Figure 4.12 show the mean mark for acceptableness in EM treated fish sample and control fish sample. For this property, the mark vary from 1 ( worse ) , 2 ( bad ) , 3 ( carnival ) , 4 ( good ) and 5 ( best ) . These properties were judged to cognize the degree of satisfactoriness toward the fish samples. In other word, this property was indicated that either the fish sample is satisfied to eat or non.

Figure 4.12: Average Mark in Acceptability and Earthy Taste for EM treated Fish Sample and Control fish Sample Harmonizing to Evaluation Session

Figure 4.12, shown that the mean mark for EM treated fish sample ever higher compared to command fish sample. In 1st session, mean mark for EM treated fish sample was 3.2 whereas control fish sample was 2.3. Towards the last session of the rating session, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample besides higher than control fish sample. Overall, the mean mark for EM treated fish sample has alteration from Fair ( 3.2 ) to Good ( 4.3 ) toward the terminal. On the other manus, for control fish sample non demo drastically alteration. For the 1st session the mean mark was bad ( 2.3 ) and at the young girl session of rating the mark is still at the same mark ( 2.7 ) but a spot higher toward Fair mark.

Furthermore, figure 4.12 shows the relationship affecting acceptableness and crude gustatory sensation. The alteration in mean mark for acceptableness for both sample were affected by the crude gustatory sensation in the fish sample. The less of crude gustatory sensation in the both fish samples or in other word the higher the mean mark in crude gustatory sensation indicate higher mean mark in acceptableness.

Therefore, the crude gustatory sensation was the chief job contributed to the rejection of Tilapia in the local and planetary market. Even though there are other property that has been judged in this survey, but the chief property contributed to the negative response of Tilapia was crude gustatory sensation. The used of EM has changed the panellist tolerability toward fish sample from just to good ( figure 4.12 ) . From the Analysis of Variances ( ANOVA ) , the information was significantly differ with P & A ; lt ; 0.005 ( Appendix 19 ) .

Plate Count

Table 4.1 shows the comparing of the mean CFU between the EM treated H2O sample and the control H2O sample. From the spread home base consequences, control dirt sample recorded an mean 6.0 ten 107 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 14th, 1.6 ten 108 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 19th, and 1.2 tens 108 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 24th. In general, the mean micro-organism settlements for EM treated H2O sample are 2.7 ten 108 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 14th, 5.7 ten 108 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 19th, and 6.5 tens 108 CFU/mL at twenty-four hours 24th. Furthermore, by uniting all these consequences, the mean micro-organism settlements for control H2O sample is 1.13 ten 108 CFU/mL while the mean micro-organism settlements for EM treated H2O sample is 4.97 ten 108 CFU/mL which is 4.398 times ( 339.82 % ) higher. In simple word, the application of EM has vitally increased the figure of good micro-organisms in the H2O.

Table 4.1: Comparison of CFU

Day

Average Colonies ( CFU/mL )

Em

Control

14

2.7 x 108

6.0 x 107

19

5.7 x 108

1.6 x 108

24

6.5 x 108

1.2 x 108

Average

4.97 x 108

1.13 x 108