What Is Politics Essay Research Paper What

What Is Politics Essay, Research Paper

What Is Politicss

On hearing the word political relations, what normally springs to mind are images of

authorities, politicians and their policies or more negatively the thought

of corruptness and dirty fast ones. The existent definition seems to hold been

obscured and about lost by such representations and clich? s that tend

non to nail the true kernel, which defines this thing, called

political relations. In order to do an effort at a definition of political relations a

systematic attack is required. To get down with, a brief historical

overview will be considered, to understand the beginnings of political relations.

Following this, different nucleus constructs, which are imperative to a

definition of political relations, will be discussed, in the hope to detect a

true and just reading of the word political relations.

The word political relations comes from the Greek word & # 8220 ; polis & # 8221 ; , intending the province

or community as a whole. The construct of the & # 8220 ; polis & # 8221 ; was an ideal province

and came from the Hagiographas of great political minds such as Plato and

Aristotle. In his novel & # 8220 ; The Republic & # 8221 ; , Plato describes the ideal province

and the agencies to accomplish it. Hence, the word political relations originally has

intensions in the ways in which to make the ideal society. An ideal

society is in pattern a instead hard purpose and even an impossible purpose

to accomplish. Politicss implies steps which could and should, in the

positions of their devisor, be implemented in the hope to make a better

society, than that which is already present. The really fact that Plato

and Aristotle saw imperfectnesss in the societies in which they lived,

prompted them to compose their political doctrines. These doctrines

provided the first written acknowledgment of political relations. In his Hagiographas his

& # 8220 ; The Politics & # 8221 ; , Aristotle states that & # 8220 ; Man is by nature a political

animate being & # 8221 ; ( The Politics, 1 ) in another words, it lies deep within the

inherent aptitude of adult male. It is about cardinal. Due to his nature adult male should

see and gain his function within the & # 8220 ; polis & # 8221 ; . So harmonizing to

Aristotle Politics is non a dreamt up construct, but instead an inherent

characteristic of world.

To get down with, the basest premiss that underpins the impression of political relations

should be considered in order to get at a just definition. Man is

self-preserving by nature. He thinks and Acts of the Apostless, whether that is as an

single or as a group who portion involvements, with first respect to

his ain involvements. Self-perpetuation is the figure one regulation. He

hence possesses his ain involvements, thoughts and penchants, which may

differ to those of his coevalss. In the & # 8220 ; Blackwell Encyclopaedia

of Political Thought & # 8221 ; , Miller supports this premiss:

& # 8220 ; Politics presupposes a diverseness of position, if non about ultimate purposes,

at least the best ways of accomplishing them & # 8221 ; . ( Miller, 1987, p.390 )

Politicss consider this position of adult male, in that on meeting others whose

involvements oppose his ain, struggle is bound to happen. What could be the

cause of this struggle in involvement? The universe has its bounds ; all

stuff wealth within it is exhaustible. Who hence, gets how big

a portion, of those resources, which are present on the Earth in limited

supply? If adult male were permitted to move on and prosecute his ain selfish

involvements, snaping that, which he desires, a society would rapidly

become under regulation of force. Politics is a manner of battling the

debasement of society into a violent and unstructured muss by cut downing

it to be governed by the crude inherent aptitudes of adult male in order to decide

struggle. Leftwich states in his essay entitled & # 8220 ; Politicss: people,

resources and power & # 8221 ; from his book & # 8220 ; What is Politics? & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; political relations compromises all the activities of co-operation and

struggle, within and between societies, whereby the human species goes

about organizing the usage, production and distribution of homo, natural

and other resources in the production and reproduction of its biological

and societal life. & # 8221 ; ( Leftwich, 1984, p.64-65 )

Politicss therefore may be defined a agency to deciding this struggle

through assorted agencies, which will be tackled subsequently in this essay. If

nevertheless one was to take this premiss of the being of opposing

sentiments as false, struggle between persons should ne’er happen and

political relations would non be required to decide jobs. To warrant political relations

nevertheless, this premiss must be true and through merely sing, the

society in which we live it is apparent, that struggle exists. In his

definition of political relations in the & # 8220 ; Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political

Thought & # 8221 ; Miller advocates this position, saying that if & # 8220 ; people ( were to )

agree spontaneously on a class of action & # 8230 ; they ( would ) hold no demand to

engage in politics. & # 8221 ; ( Miller, 1987, p.390 ) ( Added ) Thus, political relations exists

due to the wide spectrum of thoughts and sentiments within any society.

To decide conflicting sentiments, a consensus must be agreed upon by all

parties affected. Besides in & # 8220 ; The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political

Thought & # 8221 ; , Miller cites three methods which are a characteristic of political relations

when deciding dissensions within society, these three elements are

& # 8220 ; persuasion, bargaining and a mechanism for making a concluding

determination & # 8221 ; ( Miller, 1987, p.390 ) . This means that political relations attempts to move as

a conciliator by offering solution ( s ) to conflict to the parties involved

by agencies of treatment with them. The result will most likely require

the giving up of at least one of the parties implicated in order to run into

at a via media. The mechanism is the manner in which the parties make

their concluding determinations based on the scenarios with which they have been

provided. This may take the signifier of a ballot.

How is it that the concluding determination

made though via media is enforceable?

For certainly in order for political relations to be of any usage as a conciliator in

labored dealingss it must transport some kind of authorization and power.

Politicss implies power. Dahl, in Modern Political Analysis, states that:

& # 8220 ; a political system as any relentless form of human relationships

that involves, to a important extent, control, influence, power or

authority. & # 8221 ; ( Dahl, 1984, p.9-10 )

Certain members of a society must hold the authorization over other member & # 8217 ; s

in order to implement civil treatment in the first topographic point. It seems to

follow that for certain persons to exercise more power than others they

must hold the support of a big proportion over those which they have

authorization. Traveling back to the premiss that adult male is at bosom a selfish

animal, it must be true that even those in power are immune to the

effects of prosecuting their ain ends to a certain extent. Politicss could

hence be defined as a power battle between those in influential

places. Power can merely be obtained by obtaining the support from as

many groups and persons as possible. This can be achieved by

supplying alluring solutions to struggles that already exist in a

society, whether this be in a honest or dishonest manner. By appealing to

members of a society with solutions to their jobs and promises to

act in their involvements, a group or single can derive support and

finally authorization over other groups and persons. Politicss could

therefore be defined as a ciphering art of power addition or power keeping or

more merely as power battle.

The ultimate power is found in authorities. Miller continues to call the

province as & # 8220 ; the main sphere of political relations, in the modern universe. ( Miller,

1987, p.391 )

It is within this establishment that all of the aforesaid takes

topographic point. Therefore, political relations could be defined as the workings of authorities as

a surety to a peaceable society. The authorities is run by the

politicians, it is the politicians who form the thoughts to hopefully

settle struggle in the society they govern. However it seems that if

political relations are the working of authorities those societies and communities,

which do non possess a authorities, are barren of political relations. In Britain,

we have a authorities so we tend to associate the political relations as the workings

of that authorities. However, in every community and corporation where

there is hierarchy political relations must be. In a company for illustration, a foreman

makes determinations and resolutenesss conflict. In a folk, a leader makes

determinations to maintain internal struggles to a lower limit and finally ensures

the endurance of his folk. Thus political relations is present in every community

and is used to pull off workings and dissensions that may happen within

any co-habitation. John Horton, subscriber in Leftwich & # 8220 ; What is

Politicss? & # 8221 ; supports this position. Horton quotes from & # 8220 ; Rationalism in

Politicss and other Essays & # 8221 ; ( 1962 ) by Michael Oakenshott ;

& # 8220 ; Politicss I take to be the activity of go toing to the general

agreements of a set of people whom opportunity or pick have brought

together. In this sense, households, nines and erudite societies have

their political relations & # 8221 ; ( Leftwich, 1984, p.112 )

Here Oakenshott acknowledges the being of political relations in all sorts of

human societies and communities, because of co-habitation. Horton

nevertheless goes on to call the province every bit being as possessing certain

characteristics which make it peculiar from those other illustrations of political relations

listed by Oakenshott. These characteristics suggest the mandatary and

autocratic nature of the province, when compared to those political relations that

exist in say a athleticss nine. Politicss occurs in all sorts of communities.

Whether it be the athleticss nine or the province authorities and is concerned

with inventing a method of administration and trying to implement that

method of administration within that community over which it acts. It is

nowadays in these communities as a necessary step to avoid struggle

due to those inevitable diversenesss in sentiment and hence finally

needed to advance as peaceable an being as possible.

In the procedure of set uping the nucleus construct of this matter called

political relations, it is apparent to see that a brief definition is virtually

impossible. Politics is non merely an object or a individual isolated thought.

It is non a concise term but instead a complicated impression, which embraces

premises, sentiments, and qualities of human nature, actions and

establishments. It seems to originate in those state of affairss where worlds live in

coexistence whether that be by pick or otherwise. Any effort at a

definition would be to restrict and custom-make political relations to accommodate 1s own

peculiar positions. Nevertheless, in suiting with the rubric of this essay

an effort at a definition shall be made.

Politicss is the agencies to making a more organized and peaceable society,

by supplying methods to decide struggle that of course occurs between

work forces, by agencies of civil treatment and rational via media. It therefore stems

the demand for force in tense state of affairss and finally looks to avoid

the debasement of a community into arrant pandemonium. Authority is the

implicit in characteristic of political relations and ensures its enforceability. Power

underpins its very being ; it is a requirement for political relations exist.

Without authorization, political relations merely is non executable. The most seeable and

widely recognized illustration of political relations is the workings of the governmental

establishments. However, although at first glimpse one may non be cognizant of

it, political relations in its assorted signifiers is present wherever and whenever

worlds form a community. Mentioning back to the positions of Aristotle,

political relations is an intrinsic characteristic of world.