WMD – Weapons of Mass Destruction Essay

Culture

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That complex whole which includes cognition, belief, art, ethical motives, jurisprudence, usage, and any other capablenesss and wonts acquired by adult male as a member of society ( Tylor, 1871 )

The sum sum of cognition, attitudes, and accustomed behaviour forms shared and transmitted by members of a peculiar society ( Linton, 1940 )

[ All the ] historically created designs for life, expressed and inexplicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given clip as possible ushers for the behaviour of adult male ( Kluckhohn & A ; Kelly, 1945 )

The mass of erudite and familial motor reactions, wonts, techniques, thoughts, and values & # 8212 ; and the behaviour they induce ( Kroeber, 1948 )

The semisynthetic portion of the environment ( Herskovits, 1955 )

Forms, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols, representing the typical accomplishment of human groups, including their incarnations in artefacts ( Kroeber & A ; Kluckhohn, 1952 )

Culture is all those agencies whose signifiers are non under familial control which serve to set single and groups within their ecological communities ( Binford, 1968, p. 323 )

Culture is a set of shared ideals, values, and criterions of behaviour ; it is the common denominator that makes the actions of persons apprehensible to the group. Because they portion a common civilization, people can foretell each other & # 8217 ; s actions in a given circumstance and react consequently. A set of regulations or criterions shared by members of a society that when acted upon by the members, produce behaviour that falls within a scope the members consider proper and acceptable. ( Haviland, 1975 )

We may specify civilization as the entirety of the erudite and shared forms of belief and behaviour of a human group. ( Aceves & A ; King, 1978 )

Learned behavior copied from another ( Steadman, 1982 )

We will curtail the term civilization to an conceptional system. Cultures in this sense comprise systems of shared thoughts, systems of constructs and regulations and significances that underlie and are expressed in the ways that worlds live. Culture, so defined, refers to what worlds learn, non what they do and do. As Goodenough ( 1961, p. 522 ) expressed it, this cognition provides “ criterions for make up one’s minding what is, & # 8230 ; for make up one’s minding what can be, & # 8230 ; for make up one’s minding how one feels about it, & # 8230 ; for make up one’s minding what to make about it, & # 8230 ; and for make up one’s minding how to travel about making it. ” ( Kessing & A ; Strathern 1998, p. 16 )

There is understanding that civilization is learned from others while turning up in a peculiar society or group ; is widely shared by the members of that society or group ; and so deeply affects the ideas, actions, and feelings of people in that group that anthropologists normally say that “ persons are a merchandise of their civilization. ( Bailey & A ; Peoples, 1999 )

“ Culture: ( 1 ) the set of capacities which distinguishes Homo sapiens as a species and which is cardinal to its manner of version. ( 2 ) The learned, cumulative merchandise of all societal life. ( 3 ) The typical forms of idea, action, and valu

Es that characterize the members of a society or societal group ( 4 ) A series of reciprocally incompatible constructs, developing after the Second World War:

( a ) in societal anthropology, the agreements of belief and usage through which societal dealingss are expressed ;

( B ) in materialist surveies, the patterned cognition, techniques, and behaviour through which worlds adapt to the natural universe ;

( degree Celsius ) in ethnoscience, a set of criterions for behaviour considered important within a society ;

( vitamin D ) in symbolic surveies, a system of significances through which societal life is interpreted.

Robert Winthrop ( 1991 ) Dictionary of Concepts in Cultural Anthropology. New york: Greenwood Press. p. 50

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Culture is “ an ideal of human flawlessness… increased sugariness, increased light, increased life, increased understanding. ”

Matthew Arnold ( 1869: 64 ) Culture and Anarchy

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“ Culture may be defined as the entirety of the mental and physical reactions and activities that characterize the behaviour of the persons composing a societal group jointly and separately in relation to their natural environment, to other groups, to members of the group itself and of each person to himself. It besides includes the merchandises of these activities and their function in the life of the groups. The mere numbering of these assorted facets of life, nevertheless, does non constitute civilization. It is more, for its elements are non independent, they have a construction. ”

Franz Boas ( 1963 — orig. 1938 ) The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: Macmillan. p. 149.

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“ Culture is a category of things and events, dependent upon symboling, considered in an extrasomatic context. ”

Leslie White ( 1959 ) “ The Concept of Culture ” American Anthropologist 61 ( 2 )

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“ Culture consists of the more or less organized system of learned, prescribed apprehensions complexly shared by a group of people. ”

Marc J. Swartz:

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“ Culture is all those agencies whose signifiers are non under direct familial control..which service to set persons and groups within their ecological communities ”

Lewis Binford

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“ The civilization construct comes down to behavior forms associated with peculiar groups of peoples, that is to “ imposts ” or to a people ‘s manner of life. ”

Marvin Harris

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“ A society ‘s civilization consists of whatever it is one has to cognize or believe in order to run in a mode acceptable to its members. Culture is non a stuff phenomenon ; it does non dwell of things, people, behaviour, or emotions. It is instead an organisation of these things. It is the signifier of things that people have in head, their theoretical accounts for comprehending, associating, and otherwise construing them…

Culture… .consists of criterions for make up one’s minding what is… for make up one’s minding what can be, … for make up one’s minding what one feels about it, … for make up one’s minding what to make about it, and… for make up one’s minding how to travel about making it. “

Ward Goodenough